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Vet Terms Ch. 3

Meat and Bones

musculoskeletal system consists of 2 systems that work together to support the body and allow movement of the animal - the skeletal system and the muscular system
ossification formation of bone and fibrous tissue
osteoblasts immature bone cells that produce bony tissue
osteoclasts phagocytic cells that eat away bony tissue from medullary cavity of long bones
oste/o, oss/e, oss/i bone
-blasts immature
osteocytes mature osteoblasts
hematopoietic red bone marrow located in cancellous bone
hemat/o blood
-poietic pertaining to formation
medullary cavity inner space of bone
cartilage connective tissue that is more elastic than bone
articular cartilage a specific type of cartilage, covers the joint surface of bone
meniscus curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as canine stifle, that cushions forces applied to the joint
chondr/o cartilage
joints/articulations connections between bones
arthr/o joint
synarthroses allows no movement
amphiarthroses allows slight movement
diarthroses allows free movement
suture jagged line where bones join and form nonmovable joint
fontanelle soft spot remaining at the junction of sutures that usually closes after birth
symphysis joint where two bones join and are held firmly together so that they function as one bone; cartilaginous joint
mandibular symphysis the halves of the mandible fuse at a symphysis to form one bone
pubic symphysis the halves of the pelvic also fuse at symphysis
synovial joints ball and socket joints; enarthrosis
ball and socket joints allow a wide range of motion in many directions such as hip and shoulder joints
arthrodial or condyloid joints with oval projections that fit into a socket such as carpal joints
trochoid joints iclude pulley-shaped joints like the connection between the atlas to the axis
hinge joints allows motion in one plane or direction , such as canine stifle and elbow joints
gliding joints move or glide over each other as in radioulnar joint or articulating process between successive vertebrae
saddle joint located in carpometacarpal joint of thumb
ligament band of fibrous tissue that connects one bone to another bone to help stabilize joints
tendon band of fibrous connective tissue that connect muscle to bone to help the animal move
bursa fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movemennt in areas of friction
synovial membrane inner lining of bursae and synovial joints
synovial fluid secreted from synovial membrane, which acts as lubricant to make joint movement smooth
axial skeleton framework of body that includes the skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bones, vertebral column, ribs and sternum
appendicular skeleton framework of the body that consists of the extremities, shoulder, and pelvic girdle
cranium portion of the skull that encloses the brain
crain/o skull
frontal forms the roof of the cranial cavity or "front" or cranial portion of the skull
parietal paired bones that form the roof of the caudal cranial cavity
occipital forms the caudal aspect of the cranial cavity where the foramen magnum, or opening for the spinal chord, is located
foramen an opening in bone through which tissue passes
magnum large
temporal paired bones that form the side and base of the cranium
sphenoid paired bones that form part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the bony eye socket
ethmoid forms the rostral part of the cranial cavity
incisive forms the rostral part of the hard palate and lower edge of nares
pterygoid forms the lateral wall of the nasopharynx
sinuses air or fluid filled spaces
zygomatic forms the orbit and cheekbone; projections from the temporal and zygomatic bone form the zygomatic arch (cheekbone)
maxilla forms upper jaw
mandible forms the lower jaw
palatine forms the hard palate
lacrimal forms the medial part of the orbit
nasal forms the bridge of the nose
vomer forms the nasal septum
nasal septum cartilaginous structure that divides the two nasal cavities
hyoid bone suspended between the mandible and laryngopharynx
vertebral column supports the head and body and protects the spinal chord; spinal chord; back bone
vertebra vertebral column consists of individual bones
body solid portion ventral to the spinal chord
arch dorsal part of the vertebra that surrounds the spinal chord
lamina left or right dorsal half of the arch
spinous process single projection from the dorsal part of the vertebral arch
transverse processes project laterally from the right and left side of the vertebral arch
articular processes paired cranial and caudal projections located on the dorsum of the vertebral arch
vertebral foramen the opening in the middle of the vertebra through which the spinal chord pass
intervertebral discs the vertebrae are separated and cushioned from each other by cartilage discs
atlas C1 or cervical vertebra one
axis C2 or cervical vertebra two
ribs paired bones that attach the thoracic vertebrae; costals
cost/o ribs
strenum breastbone, forms midline ventral portion of the rib cage
manubrium cranial portion of the sternum
xiphoid process the caudal portion of the sternum
thoracic cavity the ribs, sternum, and thoracic vertebrae ; ribcage
scapula large triangular bone on the skin of the thorax; shoulder blade
clavicle slender bone that connects the sternum to the scapula; collarbone
humerus long bone of proximal front limb; brachium
antibrachium the radius and ulna are the two bones of the forearm or distal limb
radius cranial bone of front limb
ulna caudal bone of the front limb
oclecranon ulna has a proximal projection; that forms the point of the elbow
carpal bones irregularly shaped bones in the area known as wrist in people
metacarpals bones found distal to the carpus; identified in numbers from medial to lateral
splint bones in the horse, metacarpals II and IV do not articulate with the phalanges
interosseous splint bones are attached by
cannon bone ligament to third metacarpal
phalanges bones of the digits
phalanx one bone of the digit
digits bones analogous to the human finger and vary in animals
dewclaw digit 1 in of dogs; may be removed shortly after birth
ungulates animals with hooves
fetlock joint the joint between metacarpal III and the proximal phalanx
pastern joint joint between p1 and p2
coffin joint joint between p2 and p3
long pastern bone p1
short pastern bone p2
coffin bone p3
claw phalanx 3 (p3); non-hooved animals
declaw surgical procedure to remove claw; onychetomy
seasmoid bones small nodular bones embedded in tendon or joint capsule
navicular bone seasomoid bone located inside the hoof and on the palmer and plantar surface
pelvis hip; consist of illium, ischium and pubis
ilium largest pair and is blade shape
sacroiliac joint forms when ilium articulates with the sacrum
ischium caudal pair of bones
pubis ventral pair of bones that are fused on midline by a cartilaginous joint
pubic smphysis cartiliginous joint
acetabulum large socket of the pelvic bone and forms where the three bones meet
femur thigh bone; proximal long bone of the rear
femoral head head of femur
femoral neck head of femur is connected to this narrow area
throchanters large flat broad projections on a bone
condyles rounded projection
patella large seasamoid bone in the rear limb
stifle joint houses the patella
popliteal seasamoid bone in the rear limb of some animals
tibia larger and more weight bearing bone of two
fibula long,slender bone
crus area of rear limb between and hock
tarsus tarsal bones are irregularly shaped bones, in small animals this joint is called
hock tarsal bones are irregularly shaped bones, in large animals
talus shorter, medial tarsal bone located in the proximal row of tarsal bone
calceneus long tarsal bone located in the proximal row of tarsal bones
meta- beyond
aperture opening
canal tunnel
crest high projection or border projection
crista ridge
dens toothlike structure
eminence surface projection
facet smooth area
fissure deep cleft
foramen hole
fossa trench or hollow depressed area
fovea small pit
head major protusion
lamina thin flat plate
line projection or ridge
malleolus rounded projection (distal end of tibia and fibula)
meatus passage or opening
process projection
protuberance projecting part
ramus branch or smaller structure given off by a larger structure
sinus space or cavity
spine sharp projection
sulcus groove
suture seam
trochanter broad, flat projection (on femur)
tubercle small round surface of projection
tuberosity projection part
arthritis inflammatory condition of joints
arthrodynia joint pain
arthropathy joint disease
bursitis inflammation of bursa
chrondromalcia abnormal cartilage softening
chrondropathy cartilage disease
discospondylitis inflammation of the intervertebral disc and vertebrae
epiphysitis inflammtion of growth plate
exostosis benign growth on the bone surface
gouty artiritis/ gout joint inflammation associated with the formation of uric acid crystals in the joint (seen more commonly in bones)
hip dysplasia abnormal development of the pelvic joint causing the head of the femur and the acetabulum not to be aligned properly; most commonly seen in large breed dogs
intervetebral disc disease rupture or protrusion of the cushioning disc found between the vertebrae that results in pressure on the spinal chord or spinal nerve roots; heriniated disc, ruptured disc, IVDD
kyphosis dorsal crvation of the spine; hunchback
Legg-Calve-Perthed disease idiopathic necrosis of the femoral head and neck of small breed dogs ; also called avascular necrosis of the femoral head and neck
lordosis postion in which the vertebral column is abnormally curved ventrally; seen in cats in heat; sway back
luxiation dislocation or displacement of bone from joint
myeloma tumor complosed of cells derived from hematopoietic tissue of the bone marrow
ostealigia bone pain
osteitis infammation of bone
osteaarthritis degenerative joint disease commonly associated with aging or wear and tear on joints; degenerative joint disease, DJD
osteachondrosis degeneration or necrosis of bone and cartilage followed by regeneration or recalcification
osteaochondrosis dissecans degeneration or necrosis of cartilage followed by degeneration or recalcification with dissecting flap of articular cartilage and some inflammatory joint changes
arthrocentesis surgical puncture of a joint to remove fluid for anaylysis
arthrography injection of a joint with a contrast material radiographic examination
arthroscopy visual examination of the joint using a fiberoptic scope
densitometer device that measures bone density using light and x-rays
goniometer instrument that measures angles or range of motion in a joint
radiology study of internal body structures after exposing to ionizing radiation; used to detect fracture and diseases in the bone
ankylosis loss of joint mobility caused by disease, injury, or surgery
ankyl/o bent or stiff
arthralgia joint pain
joint mice detached pieces of articular cartilage; osteophytes
osteomalalcia abnormal softening of the bone
osteomyelitis inflammation of bone and bone marrow
osteonecrosis death of bone tissue
osteoporosis abnormal condition of marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity
osteosclerosis abnormal hardening of bone
periostitis inflammation of the fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of the bone
rheumatoid arthritis autoimmune disorder of connective tissue and joints ; RA
sequestrum piece of dead bone that is partially or fully detached from the adjacent healthy bone
spondylitis inflammation of the vertebrae
spondylitis deformans chronic degeneration of articular processes and the development of bony outgrwoths around ventral edge of vertebrae
spur bony projection growing out of bone
subluxation partial dislocation or displacemnt of a bone from its joint
synovitis inflammation of synovitis membrane of joints
avulsion fracture broken bone which the site of muscle, tendon, or ligament insertion is detached by a forceful pull
callus bulging deposit around the area of a bone fracture that may eventually become bone
closed fracture broken bone in which there is no open wound in the skin; simple fracture
comminuted fracture broken bone that is splintered or crushed into multiple pieces
compression fracture broken bone produced when the bones are pressed together
crepitation cracking sensation that is felt and heard when broken bones move together; crepitus
displaced fracture bone fractures are out of line
fracture broken bone
greenstick fracture bone that is broken only on one side and the other side is bent; incomplete fracture
immobilization act of holding, suturing, or fastening bone in a fixed position, usually with a bandage or cast
manipulation attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or dislocation; reduction
oblique fraction broken bone that has an angular break diagonal to the long axis
open fracture broken bone in which there is an open wound in the skin; compound fracture
pathologic broken bone in an area of bone weakened by disease
malunion two bony ends of the fracture fail to heal together correctly
nonunion total failure of fracture healing
physeal fracture bone that is broken at the epiphyseal line or growth plate; catergorized as SALTER-HARRIS IV fractures
spiral fracture broken bone in which the bone is twisted apart or spiraled apart
stress fracture broken bone caused by repetitive, local stress on bone
transverse racture broken bone that is broken at right angles to its axis or straight the bone
amputation removal of some or all of a body part
arthrodesis fusion of a joint or the spinal vertebrae by surgical means
desis to bind or surgical fixation of a bone or joint
chemonucleolysis process of dissolving part of the center of an intervertebral disc by injecting a foreign substance
craniotomy surgical incision or opening into the skull
external fixation alignment of bone maintained by immobilizing the bone near the fracture through the use of casts, splints, or external fixator (rods or pins)
internal fixation alignment of bone mantained by immobilizing the bone directly at the fracture site through the use of wires, pins, or plates
laminectomy surgical removal of the dorsal arch of a vertebra
steoectomy surgical removal of bone
osteocentesis surgical puncture of bone
osteodesis fusion of bones
osteopexy surgical fixation of bone to the body wall
osteoplasty surgical repair of bone
osteostomy surgical creation of a permanent new opening in bone
osteotomy surgical incision or sectioning of bone
trephination process of cutting hole into bone using trephine
trephine circular sawlike instrument used to remove bone or tissue
adjustment the application of a controlled, rapid thrust of precise direction and depth delivered to specific contact point; manipulation
basic movements of the vertebral column extension, flexion, lateral flexion, rotation
extension ventral arching or straightening of spine
flexion dorsal arching of the spine
lateral flexion bowing or bending to each side (right or left)
rotation twisting to the right or left
fixation when a joint becomes immobilized in a fixed position that may occur at rest or during normal movement
malarticulations the connections between bones do not line up correctly
misalignment a motion segment in which alignment, movement integrity, and/or physiological function are altered, although contact between joint surfaces remains intact; chiropractic use of this term typically implies vertical misalignment; subluxation;
motion segment basic functional unit of the spine; consists of two articulating surfaces and the connecting tissues binding them to each other; includes two vertebral, the invertebral disc, nerves, arteries & soft tissue structures
range of motion amount of movement that occurs at a particular joint or region of the body; ROM
spinal manipulation manipulation of the spine to restore its normal motion and alignment. spinal manipulation relieves any restrictions on the nerves or spinal cord that could impair their function and function of the organs they innervate;
ambulation walking, running, or otherwise moving from one place to another
fascia a sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle
linea alba fibrous band of connective tissue on the ventral abdominal wall that is the median attachment of the abdominal muscle
aponeurosis fibrous sheet that provides attachment to a muscular fibers and is a means or origin or insertion of flat muscle
kinesiology study of movement
antagonistic muscle that work against or opposite each other
agon struggle
synergist muscles that contract at the same time as another muscle to help movement or support movement; agnostic
contraction tightening
relaxation lessening of tension
neuromuscular junction point at which nerve endings come in contact with the muscle cells
tonus muscle tone
muscle origin muscles are formed by where they begin and where they end; muscle insertion
abductor muscle that moves a part away from the midline
adductor muscle that moves a part toward the midline
flexor muscle that bends a limb at its joint or decreases the joint angle
extensor muscle that straightens a limb or increases the joint angle
levator muscle that raises or elevates a part
depressor muscle that lowers or depresses a part
rotator muscle that turns its body part on its axis
supinator muscle that rotates the palmer or plantar surface upward
pronator muscle that rotates the palmer or plantar surface downward
pectoral muscle located on chest
expaxial muscles located on pelvic axis
intercoastal muscles located between ribs
infraspinatus muscles located beneath spine of the scapula
supraspinatus muscles located above the spine of the scapula
inferior below or deep
medius middle
superior above
externus outer
internus inner
orbicularis muscles surrounding another structure
rectus straight; align with vertical axis of the body
oblique slanted; slant outward away from the midline
transverse crosswise; for crosswise in the middle
sphincter tight band; ringlike and constrict the opening of a passageway
bicepts generally have two divisions
triceps generally have 3 divisions
quadricepts generally has 4 divisions
minimus muscles that are small
maximus muscles that are large; vastus
azygous not paired
latissimus broad
longissimus narrow; gracilis
major larger
minor smaller
deltoid muscles look like greek letter delta
quadratus muscles are square or 4 sided
rhomboideus muscles are diamond-shaped
scalenus muscles are unequally 3 sided
serratus muscles are saw-toothed
teres muscles are cylindrical
Sartorius muscle one muscle of the thigh area
gemellus twinned muscle
gastrocnemius muscle leg muscle that resembles the shape of the stomac
kneme leg
electromyography process of recording the electrical activity og the muscle cells near the recording electrodes
ectromyogram rcord of the strength of muscle contraction caused by electrical simulation
adhesion band of fibers that hold structurs together in an abnormal fashion
ataxia lack of voluntary control of muscle movement ; wobbliness
atonic lacking muscle tone
atrophy decrease in size or complete wasting of an organ or tissue or cell
dystrophy defective growth
fasciitis inflammation of the sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and seperates muscle ((fascia)
fibroma tumor composed of fully developed connective tissue; fibroid
hernia protrusion of a body part through tissue that normally contain it
laxity looseness
leiomyoma benign tumor of smooth muscle
myasthenia muscle weakness
myoclonus spasm of muscle
clon/o violent action ;spasm
myoma benign tumor of muscle
myopathy abnormal condition or disease of muscle
myositis inflammation of voluntary muscles
myotonia delayed relaxation of muscle of muscle after contraction
rhabdomyoma benign tumor of striated muscle
tendinitis inflammation of the band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
tetany muscle spasm or twitching
myectomy surgical removal of muscle or part of muscle
myoplasty surgical repair of muscle
myotomy surgical incision into muscle
tenectomy surgical removal of a part of a tendon
tenotomy surgical division of a tendon
skeletal striated voluntary; long cylindrical, multinucleated cells with dark and light bands to create striated or striped look; attaches bones to body and make motion possible
smooth nonstriated; unstriated; involuntary visceral; spindle shaped without stripes or striations; produces slow contractions to allow unconscious functioning of internal organs
cardiac striated involuntary; elongated, branched cells that lie parallel to each other and have dark and light bands; connected by intercalated disks; involuntary contraction of heart muscle
hooks/pins in cattle the point of the ilium and ischium
cortical bone hard, dense, strong bone that forms the outer layer of bone; compact bone
cancellous bone lighter, ,less strong bone that is found in the ends and inner poprtions of long bones; spongy bone
cortex bark or shell in Latin
cancellous latticework in Latin
epiphysis wide end of a long bone, which is covered with articular cartilage and is composed of cancellous bone
proximals epiphysis located nearest the midline of the body
distal epiphsis located farthest away from midline of the body
diasphysis shaft of a longbone that is composed mainly of compact bone
physis cartilage segment of long bone that involves growth of the bone; growth plate; epiphyseal cartliage
metaphysis wider part of long bone shaft located adjacent to the physis; in adult animals it is considered part of epiphsis
periosteum tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outer covering of bone
endosteum tough fibrous tissue that forms lining of medullary cavity
long bones bones consisting of shaft, two ends and a marrow cavity; femur bones
short bones cube shaped bones with no marrow cavity; carpal bones
flat bones thin, flat; pelvis
pneumatic bones sinus containing bones; frontal bones
irregular bones unpaired bones; vertebrae
sesamoid bones small bones embedded in a tendon; patella
Created by: lizardpants



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