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Ag science preswex

Soil theory. Ag science

TermDefinition
ideal soil composition 25% air, 25% water, 45% mineral, 5% organic
humus decomposed plant/animal matter
pore space space between soil particles
soil texture measure of % sand, silt and clay
loam soil soil with equal amounts of sand, silt and clay
features of a sandy soil well drained, low fertility, prone to drought
features of a clay soil poor drainage, high fertility, poor aeration
factors affecting structural development freeze thaw, wetting and drying, plant root activity
soil air essential for root respiration
saturation point pores are full of gravitational water
field capacity water in soil after gravitational water has drained away
permanent wilting point point where no more water can be removed by roots. drought
available water capacity field capacity - permanent wilting point
red soil colour indicates presence of iron
chemical reactions doubled with every 10°c increase in soil temp.
chemical properties of soil cation exchange capacity, pH
soil colloid tiny particle of soil, cations stick here
acid soil ph 5, granite parent material
basic soil pH 7.5, limestone parent material
optimum pH of soil 6.5 to 7.5
soil biomass total mass of living things in soil
O horizon contains most organic matter
podzol acidic, highly leached, waterlogged soils
iron pan accumulation of minerals in B horizon, impermeable
brown earth soils fertile, no distinct horizons, no leaching, limestone parent material
Gley soil waterlogged, anaerobic conditions, poor structure, grey/blue colour
factors of soil formation parent material, climate, topography, time
raised bog 8-12m deep, dome shaped, pH 4-6, located in lakes
blanket bog 2-3 m deep, pH 5, located in mountains and lowland west coast
Created by: mdoylepreswex