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FoodMicroLecture 23

Final Exam

Define mycotoxins. Secondary metabolites of fungi.
Mycotoxins primarily belong to the group ______. deutromycetes
T or F: Mycotoxins are useless to molds. True
Name five of the major mycotoxins in foods. Aflatoxin, alternaria toxin, citrnin, ochratoxin, patulin
_____ are produced by A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins
___ aflatoxin is the most carcinogenic toxin known to man. B1
Name three foods associated with aflatoxins. Corn, peanuts, grains, milk
Name three foods associated with alternaria toxins. Tomatoes, sunflower seeds, mandarin oranges, peppers
Name three foods associated with citrinin. Polished rice, moldy bread, ham, wheat
Citrinin can be inhibited by _____. caffeine
Name three toxic effects of ochratoxins. Kidney damage, birth defects, immunosuppressive, carcinogenic
Name three foods associated with ochratoxin. Grains, soy, beer, coffee, chocolate, wine
T or F: There are no ochratoxin regulations in the US. True
What are symptoms of patulin infection? Inflammation, bleeding, ulcers in GI tract.
Name three foods associated with patulin. Fruits, olives, cheese, cereal
_____ are structurally and biologically related to aflatoxins. sterigmatocystins
How does sterigmatocystin function? Inhibits DNA synthesis.
Fumonisins are primarily found in ____ products. corn
What are two consequences of fumonisns? Esophageal cancer, neural tube defects.
T or F: Baking can inhibit trichothecene toxin. False
_____ is associated with dry, rotted potatoes. Sambutoxin
_____ is produced by species of Fusarium. Zearalenone
Zearalenone biological activity mimics _____ compounds. estrogenic
What are symptoms of Ergot poisoning? Crawling sensations in skin, tingling, vertigo, headaches, hallucinations.
Ergot poisoning is associated with _____ products. grain
T or F: Marine toxicants can be distinguished by sight and taste. False
Ciguatera and ciguatoxin are found in _____ products. marine
Paralytic shellfish poisoning and _____ are caused by consumption of bivalve shellfish contaminated by "red tides" or algae blooms. saxitoxin
____ is a neurotoxin that blocks nerve impulses. saxitoxin
____ is caused by the ingestion of foods that contain high levels of histamine. scrombrotoxin
What are symptoms of scrombotoxin? Tingling/burning sensation, rash, blood pressure drop, headaches.
What are symptoms of tetrodotoxins? Numbness in lips/tongue, paralysis in face, headache, nausea.
T or F: Parasites proliferate in foods. False
_____ are harbored in the intestinal tract of animals, causing cysts. Protozoa
T or F: Giardiasis is contagious. True
What are symptoms are ambiasis? Loose stools, abdominal pain, fever, vomiting.
_____ is caused by entamoeba histolytica. Ambiasis
Cats are the only definite host for _____. toxoplasmosis
_____ is easily killed by freezing, heating, or irradiation. Toxoplasmosis
_____ is found in cattle and pigs. Sarcocystosis
_____ is found in untreated water, and is resistant to chlorine. Cryptosporidiosis
What are symptoms of cryptosporidiosis? Watery diarrhea, anorexia, weight loss, dehydration.
_____ mimics cryptosporidiosis. Cyclosporiasis
_____ can live up to 25 years. Flatworms
What are symptoms of flatworms? Muscle enlargement, vision problems.
____ symptoms are directly correlated to the number of cysts consumed. Fasciolopsiasis
Created by: goberoi