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AGR 306 Final Review

Review of Epidemiology Terms and Questions for Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
______ has traditionally been applied to human diseases Epidemiology
In the causal pie model, the _______ is depicted by the entire pie Sufficient Cause
The study of ecosystems is known as ______ Ecology
______ is the indirect method of gaining insight into natural processes Induction
______ investigations are the component of the epidemiological process which contain the natural history of disease and the causal hypothesis testing Qualitative
_____ is the type of study where one group is exposed to risk factors compared to a group which is not exposed to risk factors Cohort
_____ is a component of the causal pie model which is not a biologically stable characteristic Strength
____ are diseases shared by lower animals and man Zoonoses
What are necessary pieces of information for a disease control or eradication program? - Amount in population - Facilities needed to control disease - Natural history of disease - Factors associated with its occurrence - Cost/benefits to control
What are Hill's causal criteria? 1 - Strength; 2 - Consistency; 3 - Specificity; 4 - Temporality; 5 - Biological gradient; 6 - Plausibility; 7 - Coherence; 8 - Experimental evidence; 9 - Analogy
What is causation and why is it important to epidemiology? Affect something has on other things; Certain conditions/events bring about other conditions/events; Realizing the cause of disease will help prevent an epidemic in both human and animal species
Bonus: In what state was the BSE case found over the summer? Alabama
The first step in formulating a causal hypothesis is gaining ____ information Descriptive
The key part of defining epidemiology is describing disease occurrences in a _____ Population
_____ traditionally referred to disease outbreaks in poultry Epornitics
A disease which can be shared by lower animals and man is ____ Zoonosis
The study of ecosystems is known as _____ Ecology
The entire pie of the causal model 1 is known as a ____ cause Sufficient
_____ is not a biologically stable characteristic Strength
The goal of epidemiology is to effectively ____diseases Control
A(n) ____ is an examination of aggregate units Survey
_____ is identifying that certain actions bring about other actions Causation
_____ is the indirect method of gaining insight into natural processes Induction
_____ is the aggregate of all facts relating to animals & plants in an environment Natural History
_____ are variables which increase the likelihood of a disease Risk Factors
_____ is the quantitative process of making routine observations Monitoring
_____ is the association of variables whereby one variable impacts another without opposition Direct
_____ is produced in casual model #2 in order to show the levels of causal factors Web of causality
_____ is the time between a component cause occurring and the completion of the sufficient causation model Induction time
_____ is the effect of an extraneous variable which can wholly or partially explain an apparent association Confounding
_____ are defined as observable events which can vary Variables
[Method of deriving a hypothesis] A single causal factor found in 1 of 2 different circumstances Difference
[Method of deriving a hypothesis] Comparison of unknown disease to an understood disease Analogy
[Method of deriving a hypothesis] A single causal factor similar among many circumstances Agreement
[Method of deriving a hypothesis] Frequency of a factor varies continuously with a disease Concomitant variation
[Type of study] Compare a group of heathy to a group of sick individuals Case-Control
[Type of study] Compare a group which is exposed to one which is not Cohort
[Type of study] Investigator can randomly allocate animals to groups Experimental
[Type of study] Investigates relationships between disease and possible cause Cross-Sectional
What are the four types of surveys? Cross-Sectional; Longitudinal; Retrospective; Screening
What are Koch's Postulates? 1 - Must be in every case; 2 - Transmissible; 3 - Cannot be in a different disease
Name the sub-disciplines of epidemiology. Clinical; Computational; Genetic; Field; Participatory; Molecular
What are the three methods diseases of known origin can be diagnosed? Signs exhibited; Lab testing; Other diagnostic tests
What are the four methods by which hypotheses can be accepted? Tenacity; Authority; Intuition; Scientific inquiry
Name and briefly describe the types of epidemiological investigation. Experimental: observe and analyze data from groups that can be controlled; Descriptive: observe and record; Cross-Sectional: investigate relationship between disease and possible cause; ...
Name and briefly describe the types of epidemiological investigation (cont.) Analytical: Analysis using diagnostic and statistical measures; Theoretical: Use math simulation models
What are the five objectives of epidemiology? Determine origin of disease with known cause; Investigate/control disease with unknown cause; Acquire information on ecology and natural history; Plan, monitor, assess; Assess economic benefit
What are the necessary pieces of information for a disease control or eradication program? Amount in population; Factors associated; Facilities needed; Costs and benefits
What are 4 of Evan's rules? Higher disease rate in exposed vs. not; Response rate increases if exposure increases (1 sting vs. 100); Higher exposure rate in infected vs. not; Modification decreases the amount of disease in the population
When were Koch's Postulates published? 1892
Bonus: Where did Dr. Harrelson complete his PhD? New Mexico State University
____ is the probability of individuals with a disease remaining alive for a length of time Survival
A(n) ____________ is the term utilized when the period of risk for a disease is brief Attack Rate
A _________ is a population with no movement into or out of it Closed population
_____ is the total mortality rate for all diseases within a population Death rate
_____ is the basic term for the amount of a disease in a population Morbidity
_____ is when a disease is continuously present at high levels Hyperendemic
Usual frequency of occurrence of a disease in a population Endemic
Number of disease cases at a given time Prevalence
Occurrence of a disease to higher than expected levels Epidemic
Number of new cases occurring over a given time Incidence
What are the common methods utilized to display demographic, morbidity, or mortality data? Bar chart; Circle chart; Time trend graph; Time line graph; Table
What are methods which can be utilized to assess the population size of contiguous animal populations? Aerial count; Ground count; Counting tracks; Dung sampling; Catch-release-recatch (tagging); Distance sampling
What are common types of maps utilized to display health data? Proportional circle map; Base map; Point map; Distribution map; Chorophelethic map; Isophethic map; GIS
Geographical formations and vegetation which can impact spatial animal distribution is known as a _____ effect Location
A(n) ______ infection is when clinical signs are not exhibited by a host Subclinical/Invisible
A ____ factor is one which exerts a major influence on disease causation Primary
The __________ is the total mortality rate for all diseases in a population Mortality (Death) rate
When a population is at risk for a brief amount of time, it is known as a(n) _________ Attack rate
A disease outbreak which is irregular and haphazard is _____ Sporadic
______ are often used to depict age Population pyramids
A(n) ______ is the term for any noxious stimuli Stressor
A(n) ____ population has no movement into or out of it Closed
The basic term to describe the amount of a disease is _____ Morbidity
____ is the stage of infection where animals shed disease but do not readily exhibit clinical signs Carrier
_____ is the type of climate which occurs in a small, confined space Microclimate
_____ is the general term for any characteristic which affects the health of a population Determinant
_____ is a widespread epidemic which usually affects large populations Pandemic
_____ is the amount of a disease in a population at a given time Point Prevalence
_____ is an alteration of the nucleic acid sequence of a cell or virus Mutation
_____ is the interdependent operation of factors to produce (or prevent) an effect Interaction
_____ is when a disease is constantly present in a population Endemic
_____ is the ability of an infectious agent to cause a disease Virulence
_____ is the re-assortment of genome segments during genetic exchange between organisms Recombination
Determinants which are external to the host Extrensic
Release of DNA from one bacteria to another Transformation
Transmission of genetics via conjugal methods Conjugation
Transfer of genetic material due to bacteriophages Transduction
Determinants which are internal to the host Intrinsic
(# of new cases - # of deaths) / # of new cases Survival
# of deaths due to disease / sum of time at-risk of dying Mortality rate
# of new cases in a time period / sum of at-risk time Incidence rate
# of deaths / # of diseased animals Case fatality
# of individuals affected / # of at-risk individuals Prevalence
What are the types of genotypic changes to virulence? Mutation; Recombination; Conjugation; Transduction; Transformation
What are the three parts of the general adaptive syndrome model? 1 - General alarm reaction, 2 - Phase of resistance, 3 - Phase of reactions
Name and briefly describe the four methods in which sex of the animal can be a disease determinant. Hormonal - predispose animals to disease; Occupational - pasture vs working; Social/Ethological - behavior pattern; Genetic - sex-linked disorders
What are the 3 basic types of rates or proportions? Crude measures; Specific measures; Standardized/Adjusted measures
What are the three classifications of infections? Opportunistic pathogens; Common virus; Specific infectious diseases
What are three ways in which husbandry can be a disease determinant? Diet; Housing; Management
What are the three categories of genetic disorders? Mendelian (simply inherited); Chromosomal; Multifactorial
What are the three determinants which make up the "triad" of disease occurrence? Host; Agent; Environment
Bonus: What disease did we discuss as an example of a Mendelian genetic disorder? Spider Lamb
A(n) _____ is the most widely used statistical measure Average
A ________ is also known as the root-mean-square Standard deviation
Typically, raw data is collected in _____ order Random
______ is the representativeness or validity of an average Dispersion
A(n) ______ is used to reorder data from the smallest to the largest value Array
_____ is a systematic error in the design, conduct, or analysis of an experiment which renders the results invalid Bias
Average value identifying the most common observation Mode
Average of the smallest and largest value in a data set Midrange
Most widely used measure of central tendency Mean
Value which is a place average; middle value of a data set Median
What are the four major types of bias? Bias based on confounding; Interviewer bias; Measurement bias; Selection bias
What are the two methods of presenting a frequency distribution we discussed in class? Histogram; Frequency polygon
What are the three measures of data dispersion discussed in class? Standard deviation; Range; Quartile deviation
_____ is generally used to draw conclusions about the composition of a sample from the population Probability
The _____ interval is a range of values around a sample estimate Confidence
_____ events means all outcomes of an experiment are equally likely to occur Equiprobable
_____ is a systematic error in the design, conduct, or analysis of a study Bias
The _____ frequency provides a numerical estimate of the probability of an event Relative
A _____ measures the association between 2 random variables Correlation
_____ is a place average Median
A(n) ____ is used to summarize data from the smallest to largest value Array
The _____ distribution describes the number of events over a set time frame Poisson
Bias _____ be corrected if it occurs Can
_____ is the term used when one outcome occurs which precludes any other event Mutually exclusive
_____ is the most widely used measure of central tendency Arithmetic mean
_____ is the measure of dispersion which is also known as the root-mean-square Standard Deviation
_____ is the statistical hypothesis of no effect or no difference Null hypothesis
_____ is the typical order in which data is collected Random
_____ is any object that can take on a range of values Variable
_____ is the type of distribution based on only 2 discrete outcomes Binomial
_____ is the type of experimental error represented by alpha Type I
_____ is the measure of dispersion which is used only with the median Quartile Deviation
_____ is any ordered sequence of a group or set of things which can be calculated by the multiplication rule Permutation
Any process of observing or obtaining data Experiment
Estimate of a population variable Parameter
Representative subset of a population Sample
Elementary units which comprise a population Observations
Basic unit to which treatments are applied Experimental unit
Estimate of sample variables Statistic
What are the five steps to testing a hypothesis? 1 - State the null and alternative hypotheses; 2 - Determine sample distribution; 3 - State alpha and determine critical value (significance); 4 - Compute value of the test statistic using sample data; 5 - Make decision about hypothesis
What are the three kinds of problems suggested by studying probability? Defining and interpreting what probability is; Utilizing known probabilities to calculate others; Obtaining numerical probabilities
[Type of bias] When ignoring a single/few factors drastically changes analysis Bias due to confounding
[Type of bias] Where an interviewer's opinion(s) may affect reporting of data; Especially with surveys and similar types of data collection procedures Interviewer bias
[Type of bias] Involving inaccurate measurements or the misclassification of animals as diseased or non-diseased Measurement bias
[Type of bias] Where animals selected for study have systematically different characteristics from those that are not selected for study Selection bias
What are the five types of sampling methods? Random; Systematic; Clustered; Stratified; Sequential
What are the characteristics of the normal distribution? Bell shaped curve; 68% of data between mean and one standard deviation; 95% of data between mean and two standard deviations; 99.7% of data between mean and three standard deviations
What are the three basic properties of probability? Falls between zero and one; Sum of all probabilities is equal to one; Probability of compound events is equal to the sum of all events that are not A
What two methods, other than a table, can be utilized to express a frequency distribution? For each method, what is the advantage to using it? Histogram - see shape of data; Frequency polygon - compare two or more distributions
In terms of hypotheses, what is our goal in research? Reject the null hypothesis and determine alternative hypotheses as true
How does calculation of the mean differ when we have grouped data as opposed to ungrouped data? Easier to find the biggest and smallest value; No raw data points in grouped data; Use the group mean as a proxy
[Type of experiment] Design where experimental units are randomly assigned to treatments without blocking; Simplest experimental design Completely randomized design
[Type of experiment] Create blocks which represent time, location, or experimental material; Randomly apply treatments to blocks and repeat in multiple blocks; Blocks may be similar units which allow for unbiased data Randomized block design
[Type of experiment] Uses few experimental units which receive all treatments in random order; Have a break between treatments Latin square
Bonus: The coefficient of determination is represented by what? r^2
Created by: SilverSWolfe