Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

Normal Size Small Size show me how

Normal Size Small Size show me how

# AGR 306 Final Review

### Review of Epidemiology Terms and Questions for Final Exam

Question | Answer |
---|---|

______ has traditionally been applied to human diseases | Epidemiology |

In the causal pie model, the _______ is depicted by the entire pie | Sufficient Cause |

The study of ecosystems is known as ______ | Ecology |

______ is the indirect method of gaining insight into natural processes | Induction |

______ investigations are the component of the epidemiological process which contain the natural history of disease and the causal hypothesis testing | Qualitative |

_____ is the type of study where one group is exposed to risk factors compared to a group which is not exposed to risk factors | Cohort |

_____ is a component of the causal pie model which is not a biologically stable characteristic | Strength |

____ are diseases shared by lower animals and man | Zoonoses |

What are necessary pieces of information for a disease control or eradication program? | - Amount in population - Facilities needed to control disease - Natural history of disease - Factors associated with its occurrence - Cost/benefits to control |

What are Hill's causal criteria? | 1 - Strength; 2 - Consistency; 3 - Specificity; 4 - Temporality; 5 - Biological gradient; 6 - Plausibility; 7 - Coherence; 8 - Experimental evidence; 9 - Analogy |

What is causation and why is it important to epidemiology? | Affect something has on other things; Certain conditions/events bring about other conditions/events; Realizing the cause of disease will help prevent an epidemic in both human and animal species |

Bonus: In what state was the BSE case found over the summer? | Alabama |

The first step in formulating a causal hypothesis is gaining ____ information | Descriptive |

The key part of defining epidemiology is describing disease occurrences in a _____ | Population |

_____ traditionally referred to disease outbreaks in poultry | Epornitics |

A disease which can be shared by lower animals and man is ____ | Zoonosis |

The study of ecosystems is known as _____ | Ecology |

The entire pie of the causal model 1 is known as a ____ cause | Sufficient |

_____ is not a biologically stable characteristic | Strength |

The goal of epidemiology is to effectively ____diseases | Control |

A(n) ____ is an examination of aggregate units | Survey |

_____ is identifying that certain actions bring about other actions | Causation |

_____ is the indirect method of gaining insight into natural processes | Induction |

_____ is the aggregate of all facts relating to animals & plants in an environment | Natural History |

_____ are variables which increase the likelihood of a disease | Risk Factors |

_____ is the quantitative process of making routine observations | Monitoring |

_____ is the association of variables whereby one variable impacts another without opposition | Direct |

_____ is produced in casual model #2 in order to show the levels of causal factors | Web of causality |

_____ is the time between a component cause occurring and the completion of the sufficient causation model | Induction time |

_____ is the effect of an extraneous variable which can wholly or partially explain an apparent association | Confounding |

_____ are defined as observable events which can vary | Variables |

[Method of deriving a hypothesis] A single causal factor found in 1 of 2 different circumstances | Difference |

[Method of deriving a hypothesis] Comparison of unknown disease to an understood disease | Analogy |

[Method of deriving a hypothesis] A single causal factor similar among many circumstances | Agreement |

[Method of deriving a hypothesis] Frequency of a factor varies continuously with a disease | Concomitant variation |

[Type of study] Compare a group of heathy to a group of sick individuals | Case-Control |

[Type of study] Compare a group which is exposed to one which is not | Cohort |

[Type of study] Investigator can randomly allocate animals to groups | Experimental |

[Type of study] Investigates relationships between disease and possible cause | Cross-Sectional |

What are the four types of surveys? | Cross-Sectional; Longitudinal; Retrospective; Screening |

What are Koch's Postulates? | 1 - Must be in every case; 2 - Transmissible; 3 - Cannot be in a different disease |

Name the sub-disciplines of epidemiology. | Clinical; Computational; Genetic; Field; Participatory; Molecular |

What are the three methods diseases of known origin can be diagnosed? | Signs exhibited; Lab testing; Other diagnostic tests |

What are the four methods by which hypotheses can be accepted? | Tenacity; Authority; Intuition; Scientific inquiry |

Name and briefly describe the types of epidemiological investigation. | Experimental: observe and analyze data from groups that can be controlled; Descriptive: observe and record; Cross-Sectional: investigate relationship between disease and possible cause; ... |

Name and briefly describe the types of epidemiological investigation (cont.) | Analytical: Analysis using diagnostic and statistical measures; Theoretical: Use math simulation models |

What are the five objectives of epidemiology? | Determine origin of disease with known cause; Investigate/control disease with unknown cause; Acquire information on ecology and natural history; Plan, monitor, assess; Assess economic benefit |

What are the necessary pieces of information for a disease control or eradication program? | Amount in population; Factors associated; Facilities needed; Costs and benefits |

What are 4 of Evan's rules? | Higher disease rate in exposed vs. not; Response rate increases if exposure increases (1 sting vs. 100); Higher exposure rate in infected vs. not; Modification decreases the amount of disease in the population |

When were Koch's Postulates published? | 1892 |

Bonus: Where did Dr. Harrelson complete his PhD? | New Mexico State University |

____ is the probability of individuals with a disease remaining alive for a length of time | Survival |

A(n) ____________ is the term utilized when the period of risk for a disease is brief | Attack Rate |

A _________ is a population with no movement into or out of it | Closed population |

_____ is the total mortality rate for all diseases within a population | Death rate |

_____ is the basic term for the amount of a disease in a population | Morbidity |

_____ is when a disease is continuously present at high levels | Hyperendemic |

Usual frequency of occurrence of a disease in a population | Endemic |

Number of disease cases at a given time | Prevalence |

Occurrence of a disease to higher than expected levels | Epidemic |

Number of new cases occurring over a given time | Incidence |

What are the common methods utilized to display demographic, morbidity, or mortality data? | Bar chart; Circle chart; Time trend graph; Time line graph; Table |

What are methods which can be utilized to assess the population size of contiguous animal populations? | Aerial count; Ground count; Counting tracks; Dung sampling; Catch-release-recatch (tagging); Distance sampling |

What are common types of maps utilized to display health data? | Proportional circle map; Base map; Point map; Distribution map; Chorophelethic map; Isophethic map; GIS |

Geographical formations and vegetation which can impact spatial animal distribution is known as a _____ effect | Location |

A(n) ______ infection is when clinical signs are not exhibited by a host | Subclinical/Invisible |

A ____ factor is one which exerts a major influence on disease causation | Primary |

The __________ is the total mortality rate for all diseases in a population | Mortality (Death) rate |

When a population is at risk for a brief amount of time, it is known as a(n) _________ | Attack rate |

A disease outbreak which is irregular and haphazard is _____ | Sporadic |

______ are often used to depict age | Population pyramids |

A(n) ______ is the term for any noxious stimuli | Stressor |

A(n) ____ population has no movement into or out of it | Closed |

The basic term to describe the amount of a disease is _____ | Morbidity |

____ is the stage of infection where animals shed disease but do not readily exhibit clinical signs | Carrier |

_____ is the type of climate which occurs in a small, confined space | Microclimate |

_____ is the general term for any characteristic which affects the health of a population | Determinant |

_____ is a widespread epidemic which usually affects large populations | Pandemic |

_____ is the amount of a disease in a population at a given time | Point Prevalence |

_____ is an alteration of the nucleic acid sequence of a cell or virus | Mutation |

_____ is the interdependent operation of factors to produce (or prevent) an effect | Interaction |

_____ is when a disease is constantly present in a population | Endemic |

_____ is the ability of an infectious agent to cause a disease | Virulence |

_____ is the re-assortment of genome segments during genetic exchange between organisms | Recombination |

Determinants which are external to the host | Extrensic |

Release of DNA from one bacteria to another | Transformation |

Transmission of genetics via conjugal methods | Conjugation |

Transfer of genetic material due to bacteriophages | Transduction |

Determinants which are internal to the host | Intrinsic |

(# of new cases - # of deaths) / # of new cases | Survival |

# of deaths due to disease / sum of time at-risk of dying | Mortality rate |

# of new cases in a time period / sum of at-risk time | Incidence rate |

# of deaths / # of diseased animals | Case fatality |

# of individuals affected / # of at-risk individuals | Prevalence |

What are the types of genotypic changes to virulence? | Mutation; Recombination; Conjugation; Transduction; Transformation |

What are the three parts of the general adaptive syndrome model? | 1 - General alarm reaction, 2 - Phase of resistance, 3 - Phase of reactions |

Name and briefly describe the four methods in which sex of the animal can be a disease determinant. | Hormonal - predispose animals to disease; Occupational - pasture vs working; Social/Ethological - behavior pattern; Genetic - sex-linked disorders |

What are the 3 basic types of rates or proportions? | Crude measures; Specific measures; Standardized/Adjusted measures |

What are the three classifications of infections? | Opportunistic pathogens; Common virus; Specific infectious diseases |

What are three ways in which husbandry can be a disease determinant? | Diet; Housing; Management |

What are the three categories of genetic disorders? | Mendelian (simply inherited); Chromosomal; Multifactorial |

What are the three determinants which make up the "triad" of disease occurrence? | Host; Agent; Environment |

Bonus: What disease did we discuss as an example of a Mendelian genetic disorder? | Spider Lamb |

A(n) _____ is the most widely used statistical measure | Average |

A ________ is also known as the root-mean-square | Standard deviation |

Typically, raw data is collected in _____ order | Random |

______ is the representativeness or validity of an average | Dispersion |

A(n) ______ is used to reorder data from the smallest to the largest value | Array |

_____ is a systematic error in the design, conduct, or analysis of an experiment which renders the results invalid | Bias |

Average value identifying the most common observation | Mode |

Average of the smallest and largest value in a data set | Midrange |

Most widely used measure of central tendency | Mean |

Value which is a place average; middle value of a data set | Median |

What are the four major types of bias? | Bias based on confounding; Interviewer bias; Measurement bias; Selection bias |

What are the two methods of presenting a frequency distribution we discussed in class? | Histogram; Frequency polygon |

What are the three measures of data dispersion discussed in class? | Standard deviation; Range; Quartile deviation |

_____ is generally used to draw conclusions about the composition of a sample from the population | Probability |

The _____ interval is a range of values around a sample estimate | Confidence |

_____ events means all outcomes of an experiment are equally likely to occur | Equiprobable |

_____ is a systematic error in the design, conduct, or analysis of a study | Bias |

The _____ frequency provides a numerical estimate of the probability of an event | Relative |

A _____ measures the association between 2 random variables | Correlation |

_____ is a place average | Median |

A(n) ____ is used to summarize data from the smallest to largest value | Array |

The _____ distribution describes the number of events over a set time frame | Poisson |

Bias _____ be corrected if it occurs | Can |

_____ is the term used when one outcome occurs which precludes any other event | Mutually exclusive |

_____ is the most widely used measure of central tendency | Arithmetic mean |

_____ is the measure of dispersion which is also known as the root-mean-square | Standard Deviation |

_____ is the statistical hypothesis of no effect or no difference | Null hypothesis |

_____ is the typical order in which data is collected | Random |

_____ is any object that can take on a range of values | Variable |

_____ is the type of distribution based on only 2 discrete outcomes | Binomial |

_____ is the type of experimental error represented by alpha | Type I |

_____ is the measure of dispersion which is used only with the median | Quartile Deviation |

_____ is any ordered sequence of a group or set of things which can be calculated by the multiplication rule | Permutation |

Any process of observing or obtaining data | Experiment |

Estimate of a population variable | Parameter |

Representative subset of a population | Sample |

Elementary units which comprise a population | Observations |

Basic unit to which treatments are applied | Experimental unit |

Estimate of sample variables | Statistic |

What are the five steps to testing a hypothesis? | 1 - State the null and alternative hypotheses; 2 - Determine sample distribution; 3 - State alpha and determine critical value (significance); 4 - Compute value of the test statistic using sample data; 5 - Make decision about hypothesis |

What are the three kinds of problems suggested by studying probability? | Defining and interpreting what probability is; Utilizing known probabilities to calculate others; Obtaining numerical probabilities |

[Type of bias] When ignoring a single/few factors drastically changes analysis | Bias due to confounding |

[Type of bias] Where an interviewer's opinion(s) may affect reporting of data; Especially with surveys and similar types of data collection procedures | Interviewer bias |

[Type of bias] Involving inaccurate measurements or the misclassification of animals as diseased or non-diseased | Measurement bias |

[Type of bias] Where animals selected for study have systematically different characteristics from those that are not selected for study | Selection bias |

What are the five types of sampling methods? | Random; Systematic; Clustered; Stratified; Sequential |

What are the characteristics of the normal distribution? | Bell shaped curve; 68% of data between mean and one standard deviation; 95% of data between mean and two standard deviations; 99.7% of data between mean and three standard deviations |

What are the three basic properties of probability? | Falls between zero and one; Sum of all probabilities is equal to one; Probability of compound events is equal to the sum of all events that are not A |

What two methods, other than a table, can be utilized to express a frequency distribution? For each method, what is the advantage to using it? | Histogram - see shape of data; Frequency polygon - compare two or more distributions |

In terms of hypotheses, what is our goal in research? | Reject the null hypothesis and determine alternative hypotheses as true |

How does calculation of the mean differ when we have grouped data as opposed to ungrouped data? | Easier to find the biggest and smallest value; No raw data points in grouped data; Use the group mean as a proxy |

[Type of experiment] Design where experimental units are randomly assigned to treatments without blocking; Simplest experimental design | Completely randomized design |

[Type of experiment] Create blocks which represent time, location, or experimental material; Randomly apply treatments to blocks and repeat in multiple blocks; Blocks may be similar units which allow for unbiased data | Randomized block design |

[Type of experiment] Uses few experimental units which receive all treatments in random order; Have a break between treatments | Latin square |

Bonus: The coefficient of determination is represented by what? | r^2 |

Created by:
SilverSWolfe