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AVS-330 Quiz 11


Heritability- Alt1 measures the degree to which offspring resemble their parents
Heritability- Alt2 is the squared correlation between performance and breeding values.
Heritability-Alt3 value expected per unit change in phenotypic value
Heritability- Alt4 is the proportion of difference in performance for a trait that are attributable to difference in breeding value.
E_k known environmental effects (effects for which adjustment factors are known- age of dam, age of calf, #born, sex of offspring,..)
E_uk unknown environmental effects (effects for which adjustments factors are unknown- weather, disease...)
Environmental Uniformity Mange animals so that environmental effects on the performance of different animals are as similar as possible. Do not make environments better, make them uniform
Accurate Measurement of Performance The more accurate the measurement of performance in a trait, the higher the h^2
Contemporary Groups CG- group of animals that have experienced a similar environment with respect to the expression of a trait Contemporaries perform in the same location, are of the same sex, are of similar age, and managed alike
E_ui unknown environmental effects particular to an individual (disease...)
E_uc unknown environmental effects particular to contemporaries
Trait Ratio An expression of relative performance. The ratio of an individual's performance to the average performance of all animals in the individual's CG An alternative to deviations from CG means.
Repeatability 1 a measure of strength of the relationship between repeated records (repeated phenotypic traits) for a trait in a population
Repeatability 2 a measure of the strength of the relationship between single performance records (phenotypic values) and producing abilities for a trait in a population
Repeatability equation r=sigma^2_BV+simga^2_NAV+sigma^2_EP/sigma^2_P
Producing Ability (PA) the value of an animal as a producer (milk, fleece weight, litter size, racing speed, ect.) for any repeated trait
PA equation PA= BAV+NAV+E_p
E_p Environmental effects which permently affect an animals production (beef- fat deposited in udder; dairy-mastitis)
E_t temporary environmental effects - influences only one record of an animal
PA can be used in.... BV estimation, MPPA calculations, making culling decisions on repeated records
BV Prediction equation BV=[nh^2/1+(n-1)r]x P hate
P hat phenotypic average of repeated measures
n number of repeated measures
Most probably producing ability (MPPA) is an estimate of producing ability; is a prediction of the next record
MPPA equation MPPA=[nr/1+(n-1)r] x P hat_IND
n number of records
P hat _IND average of repeated records
Culling Decisions ... repeatability can provide guidance in culling decisions high(r)- cull on first record low(r)- cull on average of 2+ records (cutoff is approximately 4 records)
Created by: laura.peterson38



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