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Animal Care Unit 1B1

Animal diseases and modes of transmission

Name three disease-causing microorganisms Bacteria, viruses and fungi
Give an example of a bacteria Leptospira
What is bacteria? Single-celled organisms which are invisible to the naked eye. They do not need a host to survive (they can live in the environment), and they have a cell wall
What is a virus? Not a living cell so can only reproduce in plant or animal cells, so need a host to survive. They are only visible under a microscope, and do not have a cell wall (instead, they have a protein coat)
What is fungi? Organisms including moulds, yeasts and mushrooms, many of which can be seen by the naked eye. Many fungi live in the environment so do not need a host to survive.
Name three different modes of transmission - how disease is spread Direct contact, indirect contact, vector transmission
What is meant by DIRECT CONTACT? When one part of an animal comes into contact with the body of another animal (e.g. when skin surfaces touch, or one animal licks another’s body)
What is meant by INDIRECT CONTACT? When two or more animals come into contact with infected blood, saliva, vomit, faeces, mucus, sneeze droplets or bedding, food bowls, drinking bottles, accommodation, fencing.
What is meant by VECTOR TRANSMISSION? When disease is spread by biting insects and ticks. The insect or tick carries the disease but is not affected by the disease.
What is a ZOONOTIC disease? A disease which can be transmitted from animals to humans
Why are some parasites described as ZOONOTIC? They are parasites that can be passed from animals to humans
What is a NOTIFIABLE disease? A disease named in the Animal Health Act 1981 (or an Order made under that Act)
What must be done if a notifiable disease is suspected? Must be reported immediately to either the local authorities, a veterinary surgeon, animal health officer or Defra
Why must a notifiable disease be reported immediately? To reduce disruption to the food, farming and tourism industries and to protect public health.
Why is a notifiable disease so dangerous? They can either be a health risk to humans or extremely contagious.
How are notifiable diseases dealt with? Infected animals need to be isolated and possibly euthanised, and carcasses disposed of safely
Name 3 notifiable diseases Rabies, avian influenza (bird flu), and foot and mouth disease.
How can notifiable diseases be prevented? Vaccinations, good husbandry techniques and measures to prevent them spreading
What is meant by vaccination? Modified bacteria or virus is injected into the animal to stimulate the immune system to fight it off. If the animal is infected by the same microorganism their immune system can respond faster.
What is meant by good husbandry techniques? Cleaning and disinfecting animal equipment (housing, fencing, bedding, food bowls, water bottles)
What measures can be taken to prevent disease spreading? Isolation of sick animals. Qarantine of new animals to prevent the disease spreading. Culling and euthanasia.
Which vaccinations are required for DOGS? Canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, leptospirosis (zoonotic) and infectious canine hepatitis
Which vaccinations are required for CATS? Feline infectious enteritis, feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus and feline leukaemia virus
Which vaccinations are required for RABBITS? Myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease
Which vaccinations are required for CHICKENS? Marek’s disease, infectious bronchitis and avian rhinotracheitis
Which vaccinations are required for GOATS? Enterotoxemia (clostridial bacteria), tetanus (zoonotic) and orf virus (zoonotic)
Which vaccinations are required for BEARDED DRAGONS? NONE
Created by: MmeLightfoot