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Food Micro Midterm 2

What are the top five pathogens which contribute to foodborne illness? Norovirus, Salmonella, C. perfringens, Campylobacter spp, S. aureus
What are the three categories of foodborne pathogens? Infection, intoxication, toxico-infection
What are the oxygen requirements for S. aureus? Facultative anaerobe
What conditions can S. aureus grow in? Low aw, low pH, high salt
T or F: S. aureus are generally poor competitors in food. True
What are the food sources of S. aureus? High salt foods, meats
S. aureus disease acts via _____. intoxication
What is the pathway for S. aureus disease? Toxins are stable in the GI tract and indirectly stimulate the emetic reflux center.
_____ methods are commonly used to detect S. aureus. ELISA
T or F: If enterotoxins in a food are heated enough, they will be killed and will not pose a health risk. False
What are the oxygen requirements for Listeria? Facultative anaerobe
The growth of Listeria is inhibited at pH ____. <5.5
What are the food sources for Listeria? Dairy products, frozen meats, RTE meals
How does Listeria act in the body? Crosses the intestinal lining, internalized by phagocytes and multiplies intracellularly in the host.
What are the oxygen requirements for streptococcus? Microaerophile
What is the source of streptococcus? Foods contaminated by those with the disease.
What are the oxygen requirements of M. bovis? Aerobe
M. bovis lacks a _____ _____. cell membrane
M. bovis has a ____-rich cell wall, making it highly resistant to disinfectants and detergents. lipid
What are food sources of M. bovis? Dairy and meat products.
T or F: M. bovis illness can last for years. True
M. bovis can be isolated from ____ ____. lymph nodes
What are the oxygen requirements of Enterococcus? Facultative anaerobes
What are food sources of Enterococcus? Sausage, dairy products
What causes Enterococcus contamination? Processing of food/unsanitary food preparation.
Enterococcus is often grown on ____ media. blood
What are the oxygen requirements for Salmonella? Facultative anaerobe
Over 99% of human disease causing Salmonella is due to Salmonella _____ subspecies. enterica
T or F: Nontyphoidal Salmonella has more severe symptoms than Typhoidal Salmonella. False
The presence of Salmonella indicates ____ contamination. fecal
What are the oxygen requirements for C. jejuni? Microaerophile
T or F: C. jejuni survives poorly at room temperature. True
What are food sources of C. jejuni? Poultry, raw milk and cheese, contaminated water.
C. jejuni can cause ____ syndrome, leading to paralysis. Guillain-Barre
What are the oxygen requirements for Yersinia? Facultative anaerobe
Yersinia is particularly of concern in _____ foods. frozen
T or F: Yersinia is more common in adults than children. False
____ can survive under vacuum and MAP. Shigella
_____ are the only host for Shigella, and are found in their feces. Humans
_____ do not need to grow in food to cause disease, a small contamination is enough. Shigella
_____ are resistant to extremely harsh conditions although not a spore. C. burnetii
_____ is the target organism for determining milk pasteurization conditions. C. burnetii
T or F: C. burnetii must be propogated with live tissue. True
Cronobacter can survive ____ ____ for long periods of time. low moisture
_____ is often associated with infant formula and infants. Cronobacter
____ _____ stimulates Vibrio growth. Sodium chloride
Vibrio is common in ____ environments. aquatic
What are food sources of vibrio? seafood
Vibrio _____ is the most serious in the US. vulnificus
What is the biological pathway of vibrio? Pore-forming toxin lyses RBCs and can attack intestinal cells.
What are the oxygen requirements for E. coli? Facultative anaerobe
T or F: E. coli cannot survive stomach conditions. False
T or F: Most strains of E.coli are harmless. True
What is the biological pathway of E. coli? Cells adhere to epithelial cells, cause lesions, produce Shiga-like toxins.
_____ E. coli is most common. STEC
Created by: goberoi