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Food Micro Lecture 8

Food Micro Midterm 2

T or F: Sporeformers are usually gram-positive rods. True
T or F: Sporeformers can produce multiple spores per cell. False
Endospores can survive long periods of time without _____. nutrients
Name four things which endospores are resistant to. UV radiation, dessication, high temperatures, chemical disinfectants.
T or F: Endospores can be destroyed by autoclaving or canning. True
Describe tyndalization. An indirect method of destroying spores which puts them in their vegetative state for easier manipulation.
Prolonged exposure to _____ will kill most endospores. irradiation
What are the three structural components of endospores? core, core wall, spore coat
The endospore _____ is dehydrated and contains all important cellular components. core
The endospore _____ _____contains the inner membrane which becomes vegetative cell membrane. core wall
The endospore _____ _____ is composed of layers of proteins for additional resistance. spore coat
What are the stages of the spore cycle? Germination, outgrowth, sporulation, dormancy, activation
What can trigger sporulation? Environmental conditions such as temperature, pH, or availability of nutrients.
What can trigger spore activation? Sublethal heat, radiation, high pressure, pH extremes.
T or F: Spore activation is irreversible. False
T or F: Spore germination is irreversible. True
What can trigger spore germination? Low pH, temperature, lysozyme, nutrients
When is spore outgrowth terminated? When one vegetative cell emerges from the spore.
What occurs during spore outgrowth? Synthesis of cellular components, repair of the spore, swelling due to nutrient uptake.
What occurs during spore germination? The core is hydrated, Ca and DPA are excreted, spore loses resistance.
T or F: Ungerminated spores can still cause human disease. False
____ ____ is used in food processing to inactivate all pathogenic spores. High heat
What are the four types of sporeforming pathogens? B. anthracis, B. cereus, C.botulinum, C. perfringens
B. anthracis is found mostly is _____ foods. animal
What are the three ways which anthrax can occur? Inhalation, cutaneous, gastrointestinal
Where in the cell does the endospore form in B. cereus? middle
B. cereus infection when experiencing diarrhea is considered _____. enteric
B. cereus when experiencing vomiting is considered _____. emetic
The B.cereus enteric toxin is produced where? In the small intestine.
The B. cereus emetic toxin is produced where? In the food itself.
T or F: B. cereus must be temperature abused to allow for spore growth. True
What type of foods carry enteric B. cereus? Meats, milk products, vegetables, casseroles
What type of foods carry enteric B. cereus? Starchy foods
What are the oxygen requirements for B. cereus? Aerboic
What are the oxygen requirements for Clostridium spp? Anaerobic
C. perfringens require ____ ____ for growth. amino acids
T or F: C. perfringens is considered an enterotoxin. True
Where can C. perfringens be found? Soil, dust, intestines of animals.
Which of the seven types of C. botulinum affect humans? A, B, E, F
C. botulinum is made dangerous by the ______ ______. botulinum neurotoxin
What are the two main objectives in controlling C. botulinum in food? Destroy all the spores in the product; Prevent spore germination, growth, and toxin production during extended storage.
Define toxico-infection. When viable vegetative cells are ingested, they release toxins in the gut.
C. perfringens and B. cereus act via ____ ____. toxico-infection
Staphlococcal food poisoning and botulism act via _____. intoxication
Define bacterial toxin. A soluble substance that alters the normal metabolism of the hot cells with deleterious effects on the host.
T or F: Exotoxins are non-specific. False
T or F: Endotoxins are less potent than exotoxins. True
Created by: goberoi