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Food Micro Lecture 6

Food Micro Midterm 1

A situation whereby a brief exposure to a ______ physical or chemical environment that enables the cells to _____ subsequent exposure to the ______ types of harsher treatment to which it is normally susceptible. suboptimal, resist, same
Give four types of physical stress. Temperature, UV light, irradiation, electric field
Give four types of chemical stress. pH, antibiotics, detergents, oxidative stress, preservatives
What do microorganisms utilize as apart of their mechanism of stress adaptation? unsaturated fatty acids, shock proteins, stress proteins/genes
In gram (-) cells, rpoH and rpoE are genes for ______. heat response
In gram (-) cells, rpoS is a gene for _____. general stress
Define D-value. The time needed at a given temperature for destroying 90% of microbial population.
Define sublethal injury. The exposure of bacterial cells to un-favorable physical and chemical environments that can cause reversible alterations in the cells.
Name three cellular changes which can occur from cell injury. Structural/functional changes, loss of permeability barrier, degradation of genetic materials, autolytic activity, damage to spore cortex.
_____ bacteria may be able to induce an acid tolerance response to protect the cell from severe acid conditions. Salmonella
What are the two hazards associated with injured microorganisms in food? Potential capability in multiplying, undetectable in selective media.
What are the two preventive controls associated with injured microorganisms in food? A short repair phase before detection, storage in preservative conditions.
T or F: Under certain unfavorable environments, cells may not be recovered in normal media but remain viable. True
Define viability. Cells that are metabolically active and able to multiply in an appropriate environment.
Define metabolically active. Cells capable of carrying out metabolic activity but may not necessarily multiply.
Define nonculturablilty. Inability to multiply under any conditions.
Define resuscitation. Metabolically active cells changed from a state of inability to multiply in one environment to a state of ability to multiply in another.
Created by: goberoi