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VT-121 Chapter 1

Intro to Animal Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy The form and structure of the body and it's parts.
Physiology The functions of the body and it's parts.
Regional anatomy Examination of the components of each region of the body.
Systemic anatomy Examination of the different systems of the body.
Skeletal system Bones and joints
Integumentary system Skin, hair, nails and hooves
Nervous system Central nervous system (brain, spinal cord, etc.) and peripheral nerves
Cardiovascular system Heart and blood vessels
Respiratory system Lungs and air passageways
Digestive system Gastrointestinal tube and accessory digestive organs (stomach, small and large intestine, etc.)
Muscular system Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle
Endocrine system Endocrine glands and hormones
Urinary system Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
Reproductive system Male and female reproductive structures (testes, ovaries, etc.)
Sagittal plane A plane that runs the length of the body and divides it into left and right parts.
Median plane A type of sagittal plane the runs down the center of the body lengthwise and divides it into equal left and right parts.
Transverse plane A plane across the body that divides it into cranial and caudal parts that are not necessarily equal.
Dorsal plane A plane that divides the body into dorsal and ventral parts that are not necessarily equal.
Left The animal's left side.
Right The animal's right side.
Cranial Toward the head.
Caudal Toward the tail.
Rostral Toward the nose.
Dorsal Toward the back.
Ventral Toward the belly.
Medial Toward the median plane.
Lateral Away from the median plane.
Deep Toward the center of the body or body part.
Superficial Toward the surface of the body or body part.
Proximal Toward the body.
Distal Away from the body.
Palmar The back surface of the front leg distal from the carpus.
Plantar The back surface of the rear leg distal from the tarsus.
Bilateral symmetry The left and right halves of an animal's body are mirror images of each other.
Cranium Cranial cavity.
Dorsal body cavity Consists of the cranial and spinal cavity.
Cranial cavity Contains the brain.
Spinal cavity Contains the spinal cord.
Ventral body cavity Consists of the thoracic and ventral cavities.
Cells The basic functional units of animal life.
Tissues Formed by specialized cells grouped together.
Organs Made of groups of tissues that work together.
Systems Groups of organs that are involved in a common set of activities.
Homeostasis The maintenance of dynamic equilibrium in the body.
Viscera Soft organs
Visceral pleura Covers organs of the thoracic cavity
Parietal pleura Lines the entirety of the thoracic cavity
Visceral peritoneum Covers the organs of the abdominal cavity
Parietal peritoneum Lines the entirety of the abdominal cavity
Skeletal muscle Moves bones, voluntary
Cardiac muscle Makes up the heart, involuntary
Smooth muscle Found in internal organs, involuntary
Created by: kburdick



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