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Fluids in Veterinary Medicine

What are the clinical signs associated with dehydration? pyrexia, rapid and weak pulse, panting, MM tacky, CRT slow, eyes may be sunken into orbits, extremities may be cool to touch, loss of skin elasticity
What is the normal PCV for a canine? 37-55%
What is the normal PCV for a feline? 22-45%
Why does the TP increase in a dehydrated animal? Reduced plasma water so it becomes more concentrated
Why does the Ur. Sp. Gr. increase in dehydrated animals? due to reduced water content of urine so it becomes more concentrated
If urinary output has failed because of urethral blockage, renal failure, or bladder rupture the electrolytes and metabolites are not being filtered and/or excreted. So what fluid would be best for this patient and why? xx
What are crystalloid solutions? A group of sodium-based electrolyte fluids. They restore fluid balance; they are similar to extracellular fluid in composition.
What are colloid solutions? A group of fluids that contain large molecules that will remain in the intravascular space; they expand the circulating volume of the blood
What percent of body weight is composed of fluid? 60%
Define diffusion. The movement of water and electrolytes (molecules or solutes) across a semipermeable cell membrane from the side with higher solute concentration to the side with the lower solute concentration until they equilibrate.
Define osmosis. When water moves across a cell membrane from a solution with a low solute concentration to the side with the higher solute concentration until the concentrations equilibrate.
What are the major extracellular electrolytes? sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate
What electrolyte is the most abundant? sodium
What is the term used for low sodium levels? hyponatremia
What is the term used for excessive sodium levels? hypernatremia
What are the major intracellular electrolytes? potassium, magnesium and phosphate
Which electrolyte should be monitored closely in cardiac patients? potassium
What is the term used for low serum potassium? hypokalemia
If a dog has parvovirus which of course causes vomiting and diarrhea what electrolyte needs to be in the replacement fluids that are given? potassium
The most commonly seen case of hyperkalemia is seen in what instances? feline urinary obstruction because the kidneys are trying to excrete it but the obstruction stops that
The lungs should be auscultated frequently when an animal is on fluids for what reason? to listen for crackles in the lungs due to overhydration
When testing the skin turgor, normal hydrated skin should return to normal in how many seconds? 2-3
What is the normal urine output for an animal? 1-2mL/kg/hr
What does the urine specific gravity tell us about a patient? It measures the solids in the solution and indicates if the kidneys are able to concentrate urine.
Give examples of crystalloid solutions. lactated Ringers solution, 0.9% NaCl, and Normosol-R
Define isotonic. A fluid into which normal body cells can be placed without causing either shrinkage or swelling of the cells.
Define hypotonic. A solution that causes cells to swell.
Define hypertonic. A solution that causes cells to shrink.
Define what crystalloid replacement solution means. A solution that has a composition similar to that of plasma, with high sodium and low potassium concentrations. i.e. LRS and Normosol-R
Define what crystalloid maintenance solution means. A solution that contains less sodium and more potassium. i.e. Normosol-M
What is the most important organ for fluid balance? kidney
What does the kidney do for fluid balance? conserve or excrete fluid
If the kidneys are conserving fluid what will the urine be? concentrated
If the kidneys are excreting fluid what will the urine be? dilute
What role do the hormones play in the body that help it to maintain fluid balance? hormones signal the kidneys to conserve or excrete fluid.
Which of the following is used to monitor fluid therapy? A) appetite B) bowel movements C) temperature D) urine output D) urine output
One pound of water is equal to how many mls or pints? 1 pint or 480 mls
In what situations do animals become hypokalemic? vomiting and diarrhea or polyuria
What electrolyte imbalance is most likely to be found in a cat with total urethral obstruction? A) Hyperkalemia B) Hypokalemia C) Hyponatremia D) Hypercalcemia A) Hyperkalemia because it cannot be excreted
What are sensible losses? easy to measure and refers to water lost through the urine and feces
What are insensible losses? difficult to measure and includes water lost through the respiratory tract such as when an animal pants
What can cause abnormal or accelerated loss of fluids? high environmental temps, physical activity, fever, hemmorhage, polyuria, diarrhea, vomiting and hyperventilation
What are the clinical signs of an animal that is less than 5% dehydrated? none
What are the clinical signs of an animal that is 5-6% dehydrated? Subtle loss of skin elasticity
If an animal is 12-15% dehydrated what are the clinical signs? obvious signs of shock and death is close
What are the clinical signs of an animal that is 10-12% dehydrated? Skin stays tented, increased CRT, eyes sunken in orbits, dry MM, possible signs of shock--tachycardia, cool extremities, rapid, weak pulse.
What are the clinical signs of an animal that is 6-8% dehydrated? Slow skin tent return, slight prolong CRT, Eyes may be sunken, MM may be dry
What is the normal urine production amount from the kidneys? 1-2 mls/kg/hr
What type of fluids are used for SQ? isotonic
What is a microdrip set? They administer 1 ml of fluid in 60 tiny drops.
What weight group are microdrips usually used in ? less than 10 kg
What is the most common fluid administration set? Macro drip which administers 1 ml of fluid in 10, 15, or 20 drops
Created by: spoitevint