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Blood

Canine and Feline Blood Types and Transfusions

QuestionAnswer
All blood products should be administered at what temperature? Room temp
Why is it necessary to use an administration line with a filter when giving a blood transfusion? To catch blood clots or trash.
How do you get Packed Red Blood Cells to give to a recipient? Collect whole blood and centrifuge it and remove the plasma from it.
What are the three feline blood types? A, B, AB
What is the most common feline blood type? A
Pure bred cats usually have what blood type? B
What are alloantibodies? Naturally occurring antibodies that felines have on their blood cells.
Do felines have a universal blood donor type? No because of the alloantibodies.
What does autoimmune disease mean? A disorder in which the body makes antibodies directly against itself.
What should be done prior to giving blood to a cat or dog? blood type the recipient and the donor
What is von Willebrand's disease? The most common inherited coagulation disorder in domestic animals.
Plasma for transfusion is available in what three forms? Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP), Frozen Plasma (FP), and Cryoprecipitate
What is Cryoprecipitate? Fresh Frozen Plasma is centrifuged and the precipitate is taken from this.
Define petechia. small, pinpoint hemorrhages often seen on the pinna and inguinal area
Define ecchymoses. small hemorrhagic spots in the skin or mucous membranes forming a nonelevated, rounded or irregular, blue or purplish patch; such as a bruise.
What is hemoglobin? It is a blood protein which transfers oxygen.
What are the signs of a blood transfusion reaction? hypotension, vomiting, salivation, muscle tremors, tachycardia, fever, and hives.
What drug can be given before a blood transfusion to reduce reactions? antihistamine
Define plasma. yellow-straw protein of blood which transports nutrients, hormones, waste products, and clotting factors to the body's tissues
Define anemia. Less than normal levels of erthrocytes or hemoglobin
Define antibody. A disease fighting protein produced by the body in response to the presence of a specific antigen.
What is the difference in Cryoprecipitate and Fresh Frozen Plasma? Cryoprecipitate contains everything that plasma does except it is in much smaller volume.
Felines with a blood type of AB can receive blood from what blood types? A or B
Why are plasma transfusions given? volume expansion, hypoproteinemia, pancreatitis, sepsis, and liver toxicities
Plasma transfusions are used to treat what? To treat warfarin toxicity, DIC, and inherited coagulation factor deficiencies
Why may it be normal for an animal to have a low grade systolic heart murmur when they are severely anemic? because of decreased blood viscosity.
Define blood transfusion. The process of transferring whole blood or component of it from a donor to a recipient.
If the CRT is greater than 2 seconds what could be the cause? compromised tissue perfusion and shock, but may be difficult to assess in an anemic patient
What are the requirements for a canine blood donor? Excellent health, blood screening for parasites, greater than 50#, current vaccines, on HW preventative, normal PCV, easy to handle
What are the signs of fluid overload? coughing, increased RR, respiratory distress, and vomiting
What canine blood types are the universal donor types? DEA 1.1 negative or 1.2 negative
What does DEA stand for? Dog Erythrocyte Antigen
Upon physical exam, what are the things a veterinary nurse would see in an anemic patient? pale mm, lethargy, tachycardia, tachypnea, pulse that is bounding, weakness
What is the most common canine blood type? DEA 1.1 positive
Define anaphylaxis? A severe response to a foreign substance. Develops acutely and may include tachycardia, swelling, blockage of the airways, and collapse.
How long can refrigerated blood that has preservatives in it be stored? 14-21 days
Define erythrocyte. Mature red blood cell.
How long are packed RBCs good for? 30 days
Define hemolysis. The breakdown or rupture of red blood cells.
Define agglutination. The clumping of RBCs in a cluster.
What three cellular components does Fresh Whole Blood have? erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
Define allergy. An overreaction by the body to a particular antigen
Define antigen. a substance such as a bacteria, viruses, and pollen, which produce an immune response because they are foreign to the body. It is a substance that the body regards as foreign.
Define thrombus. blood clot
Define epistaxis. nosebleed
Define serum. the liquid portion of blood
The majority of bleeding disorders are seen in feline or canines? canines
Define neonatal isoerythrolysis. known as hemolytic icterus, a disease commonly seen in kittens and foals, but has also been reported in puppies. In the kitten this is referred to as "fading kitten syndrome." It occurs when the mother has antibodies against the blood type of the newborn.
Define crossmatching. A blood test designed to identify compatibility between donor and recipient samples before transfusion.
Why can dogs usually receive the first blood transfusion without a reaction? Because they do not have naturally occurring alloantibodies like felines do.
What should the hematocrit of a donor dog be before giving a blood transfusion? greater than 40%
What should the hematocrit of a donor cat be before giving a blood transfusion? greater than 35%
What vein is used for blood collection? jugular
What percentage of rbcs that have been transfused to a patient must survive for 24 hours to be considered acceptable and successful? 75%
What fluids should not be used in conjunction with blood products being transfused? LRS
What is the transfusion rate to give packed red blood cells to be able to raise the PCV by 10%? 15mL/kg
What is the transfusion dosage for giving Fresh Frozen plasma and Frozen Plasma? 10-15 mL/kg
Which blood product would be best to give a von Willebrand's disease patient? Cryoprecipitate because it is rich in Factor von Willebrand
How should frozen blood products be thawed? warm water bath of 37 degrees C
What routes are blood transfusions given? IV or IO
What areas are acceptable for IO administration? trochanteric fossa of femur, wing of the ilium, and the shaft of the humerus
Define urticaria. hives
Define pruritis. itching
Define pyrexia. fever
What type of fluid is blood? colloid
When giving a blood transfusion does an IV catheter need to be used? YES
Created by: spoitevint