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vet dental care

dental

QuestionAnswer
Vet tech tasks dental prophylaxis, certain procedures that do not result in alterations in the shape, structure, or positional location of teeth in the dental arch.
After appropriate training and under the direct supervision of the vet. you may: take impressions,make models, chart veterinary lesions, take and develop radiographs, perform non-surgical subgingival root scaling and debridement, providing that they do not alter the structure of the tooth
apical toward the apex of the tooth root
buccal side of the tooth that faces the cheek (posterior teeth)
cervical toward the crown of the tooth
distal side of the tooth that is farthest from the midline of the maxillary or mandibular dental arch
gingival area of the tooth toward or at the gingival tissue
incisal biting surface of the anterior teeth
interdental area between two adjacent teeth in the same arch
interradicular area between roots of multirooted teeth
labial surface of the tooth nearest the lips, term used to describe the front surface of incisor teeth as opposed to the distal surface that faces the tongue
lingual side of the tooth that faces the tongue (applied to mandibular teeth)
mesial surface of the tooth that is closest to the midline of the maxillary or mandibular dental arch
occlusal the chewing surfaces of the caudal teeth
palatal the side of the tooth that faces the palate (applied to maxillary teeth)
cingulum bump like located on the side of the incisors nearest the tongue
mesial surface surface of the tooth facing the next tooth forward
distal surface surface facing tooth behind
Malocclusions this refers to an abnormal tooth alignment
class I neutroclusion(displaced canines/ anterior cross bite/ posterior crossbite)
class II distoclusion
class III mesioclusion
class I top and bottom jaw lengths are of normal proportion but one or more teeth are tipped or rotated out of normal line of occlusion for example anterior crossbite
class II distoclusion, this can be a result of an abnormally long maxilla or an abnormally short mandible
class III mesioclusion, mandibular teeth occlude mesial to their normal maxillary counterpart. this can be a result of an abnormally short maxilla or an abnormally long mandible
Brachygnathism the upper jaw is longer than the lower jaw
Prognathism the mandible is longer than the maxilla
wry mouth one segment of the jaw is disproportionate to the other segment. elongation of one half of the head. simply put this is a form of brachygnathism or prognathism that affects only the right or left side quadrant
Mandibular prognathism mandible is longer than the maxilla
attrition abrasion
orthodontic care braces, acrylic retainers, springs, and elastics. breeders at times use rubber bands which move teeth, but compromise the gum tissue around teeth leading to periodontal disease, pain, and early tooth loss
Brachycephalic wide skull with a short maxilla; ex boxers, bull dogs, and persian cats
Mesaticephalic or Mesocephalic well proportioned skull width and maxillary length; ex dalmations, labs and german shephards
Dolichocephalic narrow skull and long maxilla; ex sight hounds and siamese cats
Tetracycline Antibiotic Staining avoid the use of these antibiotics in pregnant bitches and animals less than one year old. Doxirobe Gel causes permanent discoloration of teeth
Periodontics and Periodontal disease The branch of dentistry concerned with the study and treatment of the periodontium. More specifically these are the supporting structures
suporting structures gingiva, periodontal ligament, alveolar and supporting bone (tooth socket) and the cementum of the tooth root
healthy dog: depth of sulcus one to three mm deep
healthy cat: depth of sulcus one mm deep
What is the percentage of cats and dogs with periodontal disease seventy to eighty percent have some form of periodontal disease by age three
Plaque white, slippery film that collects around the gingival sulcus of the tooth. It is composed of bacteria, food debris, exfoliated cells, and salivary glycoproteins. Over ti
occlusal the chewing surfaces of the caudal teeth
palatal the side of the tooth that faces the palate (applied to maxillary teeth)
cingulum bump like located on the side of the incisors nearest the tongue
mesial surface surface of the tooth facing the next tooth forward
distal surface surface facing tooth behind
Malocclusions this refers to an abnormal tooth alignment
class I neutroclusion(displaced canines/ anterior cross bite/ posterior crossbite)
class II distoclusion
class III mesioclusion
class I top and bottom jaw lengths are of normal proportion but one or more teeth are tipped or rotated out of normal line of occlusion for example anterior crossbite
class II distoclusion, this can be a result of an abnormally long maxilla or an abnormally short mandible
class III mesioclusion, mandibular teeth occlude mesial to their normal maxillary counterpart. this can be a result of an abnormally short maxilla or an abnormally long mandible
Brachygnathism the upper jaw is longer than the lower jaw
Prognathism the mandible is longer than the maxilla
wry mouth one segment of the jaw is disproportionate to the other segment. elongation of one half of the head. simply put this is a form of brachygnathism or prognathism that affects only the right or left side quadrant
Mandibular prognathism mandible is longer than the maxilla
attrition abrasion
orthodontic care braces, acrylic retainers, springs, and elastics. breeders at times use rubber bands which move teeth, but compromise the gum tissue around teeth leading to periodontal disease, pain, and early tooth loss
Brachycephalic wide skull with a short maxilla; ex boxers, bull dogs, and persian cats
Mesaticephalic or Mesocephalic well proportioned skull width and maxillary length; ex dalmations, labs and german shephards
Dolichocephalic narrow skull and long maxilla; ex sight hounds and siamese cats
Tetracycline Antibiotic Staining avoid the use of these antibiotics in pregnant bitches and animals less than one year old. Doxirobe Gel causes permanent discoloration of teeth
Periodontics and Periodontal disease The branch of dentistry concerned with the study and treatment of the periodontium. More specifically these are the supporting structures
suporting structures gingiva, periodontal ligament, alveolar and supporting bone (tooth socket) and the cementum of the tooth root
healthy dog: depth of sulcus one to three mm deep
healthy cat: depth of sulcus one mm deep
What is the percentage of cats and dogs with periodontal disease seventy to eighty percent have some form of periodontal disease by age three
Plaque white, slippery film that collects around the gingival sulcus of the tooth. It is composed of bacteria, food debris, exfoliated cells, and salivary glycoproteins.
dental calculus plaque will mineralize on the teeth to form dental calculus, a brown or yellow deposit
plaque plus saliva tarter/calculus(mineralization of plaque/saliva
plaque releases bacterial endotoxins that damages the gingival tissues
what does the immune system do when trying to rid the plaque release harmful by-products from white blood cells
Periodontitis affects what organs liver, kidney, heart, and lungs
Grade I for Periodontal disease reversible gingivitis.
Grade II for Periodontal disease advanced gingivitis/ early periodontitis-some attatchment loss present(one to two mm)
Grade III Moderate periodontitis-moderate attatchment loss three to six mm. these teeth have a fair to guarded prognosis
Grade IIII Advanced periodontitis-advanced attatchment loss greater than six mm. these teeth usually have a poor prognosis
Stage I gingival inflammation, no evidence of attachment loss
Stage II Less than twenty five percent attatchment loss
Stage III Established Periodontitis(moderate peridotitis) between twenty five to fifty percent attachment loss: Grade one tooth mobility
Tooth mobility Grade I slight tooth movement
Tooth mobility Grade II Moderate tooth movement of one mm
Tooth mobility Grade III Marked tooth movement of more than one mm
Tooth mobility Grade IIII Stage four, advanced periodontitis, greater than fifty percent attachment loss; Grade two, three mobility in single rooted teeth
what is the treatment remove the plaque and calculus from teeth and minimize reoccurrence, surgery, root debridement, subgingival currettage
root debridement removal of calculus from diseased tooth roots
subgingival curettage cleaning/debriding the gingiva covering the roots(foreign debris and granulation tissue
technician note the key to prevention of periodontal disease minimize plaque accumulation by means of proper diet, routine professional dental scaling and polishing, and daily teeth brushing or mouth rinse
Caries means Cavity which is uncommon
Periodontal elevators used to elevate the gingival mucosa to allow root planning, tooth sectioning, and creating gingival flaps
Supragingival scalers used on the exposed tooth to remove calculus above the gingiva (not to be used subgingivally)
Dental extraction forceps used to remove tooth from jaw and to clean heavy calculus off teeth. Do not apply too much pressure as you could fracture the tooth
curettes are used subgingivally to scale tooth roots and debride the gingival sulcus. they come in various angles to improve access to the tooth roots
scaler is held in a modified pen grasp.
the stroke of a scaler should be made through the wrist and not the fingers to avoid operator hand fatigue
The dental explorer has a fine tip and is used to detect subgingival calculus and tooth abnormalities.
Periodontal probe is marked in mm increments to measure periodontal pocket depth
shepherd's hook dog
No. six explorer cat
Probing depth measurement from gingival margin to pocket base
Feline's Kit Miltex Feline Periodontal Instrument Kit
Dog's kit Miltex Canine Periodontal Instument Kit
Dental cleaning tray subgingival curette, explorer and periodontal probe, supragingival curette, prophy cup. and a variety of mouth gags
Proper positioning for a radiograph of the mandibular premolars and molars lateral recumbency
Positioning for a study of the mandibular incisors and canines dorsal recumbency
Positioning for the rostral mandibular premolars. Can also obtain a lateral view of the incisors and canine tooth dorsal recumbency
Positioning for the maxillary incisors sternal recumbency
Positioning for a study of the maxillary premolars. can also be used to obtain a lateral view of the maxillary incisors and canine tooth sternal recumbency
x-rays help determine if extraction is necessary
Technician Note: when one is learning positioning techniques for intraoral dental radiographs it is easiest to place the dog or cat in sternal recumbency for views of the maxillary dentition, in dorsal recumbency for views of the anterior mandible, and in lateral recumbency for views of the mandibular premolars and molars
Bisecting Angle Technique this minimizes image distortion and produces an accurate image of the canine teeth on the dental film. In any ninty degree arc, there is one angle that will allow an x-ray beam to cast an accurate shadow of the tooth on the film
what is the first thing to do for the bisecting angle find the middle of the long axis of tooth and film
what is the second thing to do for the bisecting angle use the BA and x-ray head to create a nintey degree angle, no larger, no smaller
three ways to reduce incidence of tracheal tears 1) always disconnect the animal from the anesthesia circuit when repositioning them 2) minimize movement of the endotracheal tube 3) inflate the cuff just enough to stop anesthetic-gas leaks
what is the longest to keep the ultra sonic scaler on the tooth ten to fifteen seconds to avoid heat build up
why is polishing teeth so important prevent rapid plaque accululation following dental cleaning
how long can the polisher be left on teeth not longer than five seconds or thermal damage could result
What are the advantages of using fluoride polishing pastes fluoride strengthens enamel, decreases tooth sensitivity, has antimicrobial properties, decreases the rate of plaque reattachment
what is the angle the sharpening stone should be kept at an angle of one hundred to one hundred ten to the scaler face to maintain the proper shape of the instument
where does the conical sharpening stone placed on the curette rolled across the face of the scaler to remove wire edges
materials used to take impression rubber mixing bowl, spatula, impression trays, scoop, and water measuring cylinder
Periodontal Therapy Stage I (step one) Oral exam on awake animal
Periodontal Therapy Stage I (step two) oral exam under general anesthesia
Periodontal Therapy Stage I (step three) charting
Periodontal Therapy Stage I (step four) dental radiology
Periodontal Therapy Stage I (step five) Calculus removal above gumline
Periodontal Therapy Stage I (step six) Calculus removal below the gumline with a curette
Periodontal Therapy Stage I (step seven) Polishing
Periodontal Therapy Stage I (step eight) irrigation
Periodontal Therapy Stage I (step nine) application of fluoride
Periodontal Therapy Stage I (step ten) therapy to treat lesions
Periodontal Therapy Stage I (step eleven) home care instructions
Periodontal Therapy Stage I (step twelve) follow up to monitor periodontal disease and prevent halitosis
Stage one six months
stage two three months
stage three and four monthly
what is the final stage of cleaning client education on dental home care for their pet, and demonstrate how to brush the pet's teeth
Technician note the key to success with dental home care finding a product that works well for the owner and is acceptable to the pet. with patience, praise, and guidance, the owner should be able to find a dental home care treatment that will work for his or her pet
how can we prevent periodontal disease proper diet, dental scaling and polishing, daily teeth brushing or mouth rinsing
AVDT The Academy of Veterinary Dental Technicians
ASVDT The American Society for Veterinary Dental Technicians
AVDS The American Veterinary Dental Society
furcation The region of a multirooted tooth at which the root divides
Created by: vettech2009