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Health and Fitness


Abduction Movement of a limb away from the midline of the body. The midline is an imaginary line effectively cutting the body in half vertically.
Adduction Movement of a limb towards the midline of the body. The midline is an imaginary line effectively cutting the body in half vertically.
Blood vessels The tubes that carry blood to and from all parts of the body. The three main types of blood vessels are arteries, veins and capillaries
Blood pressure The pressure exerted by the heart on the walls of the blood vessels. It is expressed as a ratio — for example 120/80.
Cardiovascular system The body’s unified system of heart and blood vessels. The CV system delivers nutrients (oxygen and energy) to and removes waste products from the tissues, and also helps to regulate body temperature by routing blood flow to and from the skin.
Cramp A very unpleasant sensation caused by a muscle involuntarily contracting. Often caused by cold temperature, dehydration, fatigue or overexertion, it can also come on unexpectedly when at rest.
Heart rate The number of times the heart contracts (or beats) in one minute. The average adult value is 72 beats per minute when at rest. Aerobic exercise can train and improve the heart (and the associated cardiovascular system), resulting in a lower HR.
Heart rate monitor A device that allows the user to monitor their heart rate while exercising. It consists of two elements: a chest strap and a wrist receiver (which usually doubles as a watch). More advanced models can also assess other aspects of a user’s fitness.
Shin splints Pain at the front of the lower leg caused by insufficient cushioning in training shoes, excessive overpronation, continual training on hard surfaces such as concrete, or a significant increase in training.
Lactic acid A by-product of exercise. Lactic acid has a negative effect on muscle function if it builds up faster than the body can eliminate it.
Created by: shane.holzworth