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NASM Chapter 6

NASM CPT 4 - Chapter 6

Low back arch during the overhead squat assessment may mean this muscle overactive Tenor Fascia Latae (hip flexor) Erector Spinae (spine) Latisissimus dorssi (lats)
Shoulders elevating during the pushing or pulling assessment could mean this muscle overactive Upper trapezius (traps) Levator Scapulae (back neck) Sternoclemastoid (front neck)
Head protruding forward during pushing or pulling assessment may indicate this muscle is overactive Upper trapezius (traps) Levator Scapulae (back neck) Sternoclemastoid (front neck)
Shoulders elevating during pushing or pulling assessment may also mean this muscle is underactive Middle trapezius (between shoulder blades) Lower trapezius ( v through back and shoulder blades)
What exercises can be strengthend to help correct shoulders elevating during pushing/pulling assessments Standing cable row and Cobra
Feet turning out during the overhead squat assessment may mean this muscle is underactive Medial gastrocneuius Medial hamstring complex Gracilis Sartorius Popliteus
Knees move inward during the overhead squat assessment may mean this muscle is overactive Adductor complex (adductors) Biceps femoris (hamstrings) Tenor Fascia Latae (TFL/IT band) Vastus latererlis (outer quads)
Arms falling forward during overhead squat may mean these muscles are underactive Mid/lower trapezius Rhomboids Rotator cuff
Arms fall forward during overhead squat assessment may mean these muscles are overactive Latissismus dorsi Teres major Pectorialis major/minor
Low back arch during overhead squat assessment may maean this muscle is underactive Gluteus maximus Hamstring complex Core stabilibizers
Excessive forward leadn during overhead squat could mean this muscle is underactive Anterior tibialis Gluteus maximus Erector spinae
What should the anteror view of static posture reflect? Feet/ankle: Straight, not turned or flat Knees: In line with toes, not adducted LPHC: Neutral, level Shoulders: Not elevated or rounded Head: Neutral, not tilted or rotated
What are the major joint regions of the body to assess for kinetic checkpoint observations? Feet, knees, hips, shoulders, head/neck
What are the three postural distortion patterns to look for in a static assessment? Upper crossed syndrome (head protude, rounded shoulders) Lower crossed syndrome (Arched back, anterior pelvic tilt) Pronation distortion (feet flat, knocked knees)
What is static posture? How an individual presents himself in a stance or standing position
Why is proper form and posture so important? Will help keep muscles at the proper length for amount of tension, which allows the muscles to work together and ensure proper joint motion. Maximize force production and reduce injury. (More strength, less imbalance and less dysfunction/injury)
Describe the Rockport Walk Test Have client walk 1 mile as fast as can be controlled Record time to complete the mile Immediately record HR at the end of a mile Use formula to determine oxygen consumption and starting HR zone (poor/fair-zone1, average/good-zone2, very good-zone3)
Describe the YMCA 3 min step test Client does step upd/down exercises for 3 min 96 steps per min, use up/up, down/down tempo Within 5 sec of completing, determine HR for 1 min Use chart to determine whether HR is very poor - excellent and determine starting zone for training
Why is it not always practical to measure V02 max or cardio capacity? Time Willingness of client to perform at max capacity Equipment requirements
What is VO2 max? Measurement for functional capacity of the heart and lungs. CPET- Cardio pulmonary exercise testing
How is BMI calculated? Weight divided by height, times 703
What is BMI? Body Mass Index
What is the risk factor regarding waist to hip ratio? Link between chronic disease and fat stored in midsection. Divide waist measurement by hip measurement. Greater than .95 for men or .80 for women is considered at risk.
Where to take body circumference measurements? Neck - Across adams apple Chest - Across nipple line Waist - Narrowest piont below ribs, above hip bone or at navel Hips - feet together, around widest part of buttocks Thighs - 10" above knee Calves - at max point Biceps- arm extended, palm forward
What are benefits of circumference measurements? Good for obese clients Good for comparisons as client progresses Inexpensive, easy to record Waist to hip ratio disease risk
What are ways to determine body composition? Skinfold measurements Bio electrical impedence Underwater weighing Circumference measurements
Where do you take skin fold measurements? Biceps Triceps Shoulder blades (subscapular) Illiac crest (waist) Use right side of body, take twice to be sure
What's behind the theory of underwater testing? Bone, muscle, connective tissue (lean mass) sincks, whereas body fat floats. A person's weight is compared with underwater weight. Lower underwater weight = higher fat %
What's the theory behind bioelectrical impedence? Tissues that are high water content conduct electrical current, with less resistance that tissue with little water content, such as stored fat or adispose tissue.
What is a skinfold measurement? Measurement to determine percent body fat. Requires calipers, not good way to measure for obese clients
What is the recommend % body fat for men and women? 10-20% men 20-30% women
What are some benefits for determining body fat composition? Identify health risks Promote client understanding and help them estimate healthy weight and fat % Motivation and monitoring Assess effectiveness of nutrition
What's the difference between essential and non essential fat? Essential fat is crucial for body functioning Non essential is stored fat or adipose tissue
What is body fat percentage or body composition? Relative percentage of body weight that is fat vs fat free tissue like muscle, bones, teeth, water
What is considered healthy blood pressure? 120 over 80
What is the bottom number of blood pressure recording? Diastolic - pressure in aterties as heart is resting and filling with blood
What is the top number of blood pressure reading? Systolic - pressure in arteries after the heart contracts
What is blood pressure? Circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels after blood leaves the heart
What are 2 ways to determine target heart rate zones? Straight percentage method (220-age x 65-95%) HRR (Karvonen method) Target HR=max HR minus resting HR times desired intensity plus resting HR
What is the purpose of training in zone 3 Builds high end work capacity
What is the purpose of training in zone 2 Increase aerobic and anaerobic endurance
What is the purpose of training in zone 1 Builds aerobic base and aids recovery
What is a typical healthy resting heart rate? Between 70 and 80 70 - male 80 - female
What are two most common places on the body to get Heart rate? Carotoid artery - on neck, sidge of larnyx Radial pulse - Right side of arm, in line with thumb
Pulse is created by what? Blood moving through the arteries as the heart muscle contracts
Pulse is also known as what? Heart rate
What are the different indicators of resting HR vs exercise HR? Resting HR is a fairly good indicator of overall cardio fitness. Exercise HR is a strong indicator of how a client's cardiorespiratory system is adapting to exercise
Whay does a trainer need to know client's lifestyle, occupation, history, etc? Assess risk factors for chronic diseases Assess possible muscle imbalance or weakness Provide individual, systematic, integrated progression
Why do trainers need to be aware of meditation a client takes? Meds may raise of lower a clien's blood pressure and or heart rate
What affect does stress play? Elevates resting HR Elevates blood pressure Abnormal breathing patterns which can cause posture and low back pain and muscle pain
What can be a possible factor for a client who wears heels all day? Tight soleus and gastrocnemius, foot/ ankle plantar flexed all day
What are possible issues related to repetitive movement occupations? Shoulder/neck soreness Tight latissismus dorsi Weakness in rotator cuff Imbalances causing poor shoulder rotation
Wat are possible occupational or lifestyle risks associated with prolonged sitting? Tight hip flexors Postural imbalances Shoulders/head may lean forward Lower energy Poor cardio function
What are the 2 parts or types of information to obtain from a client before exercise? Objective Subjective
What should the lateral view of static posture assessment show? Feet/ankle - neutral, leg vertical and right angle to foot Knees- neutral, not flexed or hyperextended LPHC- Neutral, not rotated front to back Shoulders - Normal curve, not rounded Head - Not excessive forward, neutral position
Excessive forward lean during the overhead squat assessment could mean this muscle is overactive Soleus Gastrocnemius Hip flexors ( TFL, Psoas) Abdominals (Rectus abdominus, exerternal abdominius)
Arms fall forward during the overhead squat assessment may indicate these muscles are overactive Latissismus dorsi Teres major Pectoralis major
Feet turning out during overhead squat assessment may mean this muscle is overactive Soleus (calf) Lateral gastrocnemius (side calves) Biceps femoris (hamstrings)
Knees moving in during the overhead squat assessment may mean this muscle is underactive Gluteus maximus, gluteus medius Vastus medialis oblique (inner/lower quads)
What is the squat strength assessment test? Designed to estimate 1 rep max and lower body strength for advanced clients. Do 8-10 reps, add more weight until failure (3-5 reps). Refer to 1 rep max chart
What is the bench press assessment? Determine what client's 1 rep max is by starting with enough weight to do 8-10 reps. Rest then add more weight until client can only do 3-5 reps. Refer to 1 rep max chart
What is the shark skill test? Measurs lower extremity agility and neuromuscular control. Client hops on one foot in a box pattern. Perform twice w each foot. Record time. Deduct for leg touches ground, hands off hips, wrong square, not returning to center square
What is the Davies test? Meaures upper body agility and stabilization. Push up position, move right hand to touch left hand. Alternate for 15 sec. Repeat 3 times
What is the push up assessment? Meaures upper body endurance. Client does push ups for 1 min. Record number. When re-assessed, can client perform more?
What are two performance assessments for client's wanting to improve athletic ability? Push up test Bench press strength Davies test Shark skill test Squat strength
How to perform pushing/pulling assessment? Feet apart, abs in, toes forward. Client pulls cable handles forward and returns to start position 20 times. Lumbar and cervical spine should remain neutral, shoulders remain level
What to look for during pushing/pulling assessment Low back arch Shoulders elevate Head protrude forward
If knees move inward during the single leg squat assessesment, what muscles may be underactive? Gluteus medius, gluteus maximus Vastus medialis oblique
What are probable overactive muscles if knees move inward during single leg squat? Adductor complex Biceps femoris (hamstrings) TFL Vastus latereralis (outside glutes)
During the single leg squat, viewing the knee from the front, what to look for? Do knees move inward Does knee track in line with the foot
If the single leg squat assessment is too difficult for client, what should the trainer suggest? Have client use a rail or something for support Do a single leg balance assessment instead
During lateral view of overhead squat, what to look for? LPHC- excessive forward lean, low back arch Upper body - arms falling forward
During anterior view of overhead squat, what to look for? Do feet turn out Do knees move inward
During lateral view of overhead squat, if LPHC has excessive forward lean, what are possible overactive muscles? Soleus Gastrocnemius Adductor complex Hip flexor complex
How is an overhead squat performed? Feet shoulder width apart Toes pointed straight ahead Perferable with shoes off Raise arms overhead Elbows fully extended Squat to chair height and back up
What are the primary things an Overhead squat is can determine? Dynamic flexibiliy Core strength Balance Overall neuromuscular control
Name 4 common dynamic posture assessments Overhead squat assessment Single leg squat assessment Pushing assessment Pulling assessement
What is a PAR- Q? Physical Assessement Readiness Questionaire
Created by: txdc48