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Food Packaging Exam

Name six functions of food packaging. Contain, Protect, Preserve, Transport, Inform, Sell
Packaging has both ______ function and ______ function. technical, marketing
Name three technical functions of food packaging. Contain, Protect, Preserve, Store, Dispense
Name three marketing functions of food packaging. Communicate, Display, Inform, Sell, Promote
Define permeation. The interaction between food stuffs and the environment.
Define migration. Movement of packaging material into food stuffs.
Define absorption. Movement of foodstuffs into packaging material.
Movement of oxygen into the food product is an example of _____. permeation
Off flavors in the product may be a result of _____. migration
Loss of aroma intensity and damage to the package are examples resulting from _____. absorption
Define primary packaging. Packaging which comes in direct contact with the food.
Define secondary packaging. An outer container which holds primary container.
Define tertiary packaging. A group of several secondary units together which can be utilized for shipping.
Name three factors which contribute to food deterioration. Reaction with oxygen/light; Time; Physical abuse; Inappropriate temperatures; Microorganisms
Name three intrinsic factors which influence microbial growth. Nutrients, aw, pH, redox potential
Name thee extrinsic factors which influence microbial growth. Temperature, relative humidty, atmosphere
What measures are involved in shelf life analysis? Microbiological, Physical, Chemical, Organoleptic (sensory) qualities
Most spoilage bacteria grow at a minimum aw of ____. 0.9
Most spoilage molds grow at a minimum aw of ____. 0.8
Name four conditions leading to food decay. External, Product, Biochemical/Chemical, Microbial
_____ can cause lipid oxidation, vitamin destruction, and protein loss. Oxygen
_____ can cause nutritional loss, organoleptic changes, and browning reactions. Moisture
_____ can cause oxidation, rancidity, vitamin destruction, and protein changes. Light
Food products are protected from microorganisms by _____. Hermetic containment
_____ is the cheapest packaging material. Metalized laminate
_____ is the most expensive packaging material. Glass
Name three advantages of glass. Chemically inert, recyclable, impermeable to gas and moisture, product display, can be heat sterilized
Name three disadvantages of glass. Break with rapid temperature change, fragile, heavy, breakage can cause splinters in food, energy demanding
What constitutes a metal can? Baseplate steel coated with chromium and chromium oxide, then an organic coating compatible with food.
Passivation Use of a light coat of protective material to create a shell against corrosion.
Name three advantages of metal cans. Rapid heating and cooling possible, light weight, not subjec to breakage, recyclable, cheap
What is the major disadvantage of metal cans? Contents cannot be seen by the consumer.
____ protects the food and can from reaction. Laquer
____ protects steel from attack by the product. Inside tin
____ allows tin and steel to adhere. Tin-steel alloy
____ provides strength to the can. Steel
____ protects steel from moisture and air. Outside tin
____ protects the can from moisture and air. Coating
____-piece cans are generally food cans. Three
____-piece cans are generally soda cans. Two
The double seam is formed by _____ operation rolls. two
In _____ seaming, the flange end of the can is interlocked with the flange end of the lid and ironed to form seal. double
Plastic An organic material that has the ability to flow into a desired shape when heat and pressure are applied to retain that shape when they are withdrawn.
What components constitute a plastic? Plasticizers, fillers, pigments, other additives.
The binder in plastics is the actual _____. polymer
What are three advantages of plastics? Light weight, strong, consumer preference, wide variety of properties
What are three disadvantages of plastics? Flavor scalping, expensive, environmental and health issues
Name the three plastic homopolymers. Ethylene, Propylene, Styrene
T or F: PET is an example of a homopolymer. False
Thermoplastic Plastics that soften as they are heated and will eventually melt.
Thermoset Plastics that set with heat and are non thermoreversible; not used in food packaging
Which six resins account for almost 97% of all plastic used in packaging? PET, HDPE, LDPE, PVC, PP, PS
Yogurt containers and ketchup bottles are examples of products packed in ____ plastic. PP
What are the layers in multi-layer packaging? Polypropylene, adhesive, PVDC or EVOH
What are three advantages of multi-layer packaging? Excellent oxygen barrier, microwavable, easy to heat seal or double seam, retortable
What are three disadvantages of multi-layer packaging? High cost, not ovenable, environmental issues, EVOH needs to be protected from moisture
What are the three types of plastic manufacturing processing? Injection molding, Blow molding, Thermoforming
_____ is the most cost efficient plastic processing. Thermoforming
T or F: Thermoforming allows packages to be immediately filled at any temperature. True
What are three disadvantages of thermoforming? Makes item seem cheap, generates waste in production process, less attractive package
Thermoforming Container is formed by pulling a vacuum or stretching a sheet of plastic over a mold.
Name three properties of flexible films. Low cost, good moisture and gas barrier properties, heat sealable, add little weight to product, waste little space during storage
T or F: Flexible packaging offer the same advantages as plastic, metal, and paper by maximizing barrier properties. True
Name the four types of paper packaging. Kraft, Bleached, Greaseproof, Glassine
____ paper is strong and used for paper sacks such as flour. Sulphate
____ paper is weak and used for grocery bags and sweets wrappers. Sulphite
Greaseproof paper is ______ paper made resistant to oils and fats. sulphite
____ paper is greaseproof sulphite paper which is given high gloss for resistance to water when dry. Glassine
____ paper is a soft paper used to protect fruits against dust and bruising. Tissue
____ paper is used for bread wrappers and cereal carton linings. Wax
Put the following in order from weakest to strongest: fiberboard, paper, paperboard Paper, paperboard, fiberboard
What are the five indices of failure when selecting a suitable packaging material? 1. Moisture gain resulting in loss of crispiness 2. Lipid oxidation resulting in rancidity 3. Loss of vitamins 4. Breakage 5. Loss of aroma
_____ is traditionally used for a cereal box, and _____ is traditionally used for the liner. Fiberboard, glassine
____ is required to obtain a correct packaging material that has the required water vapor barrier. Water activity
Cereals containing dried fruit or nuts are considered to be a _____ food. multidomain
____ fats are required for lipid oxidation, which cereals have high content of. Unsaturated
____ is almost never rate limiting for cereals. Oxygen
T or F: Vitamins in cereal will not be lost if eaten in 6 month shelf-life. True
T or F: Scalding of fruit flavor cereal is less significant with HDPE liner. False
Fried snack foods packaging material usually has a _____ structure. multilayer
Rancidity, crispiness, and deterioration are all concerns with ____ foods. fried snack
____ doughs are low in fat, high in water, and receive a single stage mix in production. Hard
____ doughs are high in fat, low in water, high in sugar, and have a two stage mix in production. Short
____ films are a popular packaging material for cookies. OPP
Indices of failure for ____ products include loss of crispiness, rancidity, and fat bloom. Cookies, biscuits, crackers
T or F: The term candy does not include chocolate. True
Confection Any sweet product manufactured from sugar and other ingredients.
T or F: Shelf life of candy is mostly based off appearance, taste, and texture rather than safety. True
Graining Sugar recrystallization; can be internal or external.
____ can cause candy to stick together if not individually wrapped. Graining
Bright colored candies usually use a package which is a complete barrier to ____. light
Candy packaging materials are chosen by the ____ of the confectionary. water activity
What are the key processes during post-harvest life of a horticultural product? Respiration, transpiration, ethylene production, maturity
Respiration Involves the oxidation of energy-rich organic substrates normally present in cells with production of ATP and heat.
Name three external factors which affect respiration. Mechanical damage, temperature, atmosphere composition, physical barriers
Transpiration Loss of water as a vapor from the product's area exposed to the air.
What three internal factors does transpiration depend on? Species and variety, type of tissue, integrity/sanitary product condition
Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) A form of packaging involving the removal of air from a pack and replacement with a mixture of gases
Name three advantages of MAP. Reduces respiration rate, reduces ethylene action, delays ripening and senescence, increases a product's shelf life
What is the mixture of gases typically used in MAP for horticultural products? 2-5% O2, 8-12% CO2
What three factors affect MAP in horticultural products? Resistance to diffusion, respiration, temperatures
____ modified atmosphere relies on the respiration of the produce and gas permeability of the film. Passive
____ modified atmosphere involves gas flushing and gas scavenging technology. Active
Name three disadvantages of MAP. Initiates anaerobic respiration, undesirable odors and flavor, physiological disorder
T of F: Incorrectly selected MAP conditions can shorten the shelf life of a product. True
What three factors determine the color of fresh meat products? Myoglobin concentration, morphology of muscle, quality attributes such as tenderness/juiciness/flavor
___ in MAP for meat functions to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria. Carbon dioxide
___ in MAP for meat functions as an inert filler and prevent pack collapse. Nitrogen
___ in MAP for meat functions to maintain the muscle pigment myoglobin as oxymyoglobin. Oxygen
T or F: High oxygen levels favor oxidation of oxymyoglobin to metmyoglobin. False
T or F: High oxygen levels within MAP also promote oxidation muscle lipids over time and effects negatively on fresh meat color. True
____ gas is highly soluble in both muscle and fat tissues. Carbon dioxide
T or F: Initial atmosphere in a meat package should contain 20% higher concentration of carbon dioxide to maintain equilibrium after inhibition of spoilage bacteria. True
The volume of pack atmosphere should be about ____ times the volume of the product. three
T or F: Carbon monoxide is only included in MAP packages of >1%. False
____ combines with Mb to form a bright cherry red pigment from carboxymyoglobin. Carbon monoxide
Name the three main types of modified atmosphere for meat products. Vacuum packaging, High O2 MAP, Low O2 MAP
____ is the most common method of modifying internal environment of a meat package. Vacuum packaging
Vacuum packaging can cause meat to become ____ in color because microorganisms use up all the O2 and product CO2. purple
What is the pH range of poultry?` 5.6-6.4
Name three factors which affect poultry shelf life. Number/types of spoilage microorganisms, storage temperature, muscle pH, packaging material, gaseous environment
T or F: Poultry appearance is determined by amount of oxygen present. False
What are the spoilage bacteria for poultry? Pseudomonas, Achromobacter
What are the pathogenic bacteria for poultry? Salmonella, Staphlococcus, Clostridium perfringens
Name three packaging methods for poultry. Vacuum packaging, MAP, MAP with controlled-release CIO2 sachets to control bacterial growth
Active packaging Progressively modifies the packaging environment by active compounds that scavenge oxygen and/or generate ethanol/carbon dioxide.
Antimicrobial packaging Releases antimicrobial compounds onto the food surface.
____ films are normally used for poultry packaging. PETE
Name the challenge associated with seafood packaging. High water content and neutral favor bacterial growth and enzymes which cause deterioration, resulting in unpleasant odor.
Keep fish fresh by maintaining a temperature of ____ degrees. 0
Fish have both _____ and _____ microorganisms. aerobic, anaerobic
Name three spoilage challenges associated with seafood. High water activity, high pH, autolytic enzymes, high amount of unsaturated fatty acids
A proportion of CO2 between ____ percent is effective for inhibition of aerobic bacteria. 20-50
Name three deterioration mechanisms of milk. Microorganisms, light leading to flavor/vitamin loss, oxygen leading to off flavors, shelf life (limiting factor)
___ to ___ nm wavelength light can lead to off-flavors a nutrient destruction in dairy products. 400, 550
T or F: Geobacillus stearothermophilus has a high survival potential in dairy products and can form spores. True
______ is a highly heat-resistant spore former which can cause problems even in UHT processing of dairy. Bacillus sporothermodurans
Name the layers of packaging material for UHT milk. outer polyethylene, ink, paper, polyethylene, aluminum foil, inner polyethylene (oxidized), inner polyethylene (nonoxidized)
Name two deterioration mechanisms of yogurt. oxygen, light
What are three parameters for stability in cheeses? pH, water activity, light, oxygen
What microorganisms are associated with cheese spoilage? Listeria monocytogenes, Staphlococcus aureus
____ is responsible for off-flavors in powdered milk. Lipid peroxidation
T of F: The browning of powdered milk is enzymatic browning. False
Name three packaging materials for powdered milk. Metal cans, laminates (LDPE or PET) fiber cans
Staling Occurs due to retrogradation of amylopectin and incorporation of water molecules into crystallites.
T or F: Use of oxygen absorbing sachets can result in commercially worthwhile increases in shelf life of baked products provided that the packaging is oxygen impermeable and packages are well sealed. True
____ is major issue with baked products. Mold
One major defect of confectioneries is the ____ of sugar. crystallization
T or F: Sticky candy results from candy with a water activity that is greater than the atmosphere. False
Candy packages function as a barrier to _____. moisture
Candy bags are normally made out of ____ or ____. RCF, polyolefin
Fat bloom Occurs with chocolate when temperature oscillates just below the melting point.
Sugar bloom A layer of sugar crystals on the surface; caused by exposing surface to high humidity/moisture.
____ and ____ rancidity are flavor defects of chocolate. Oxidative, lipolytic
Created by: goberoi