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Pharmacology I


All drugs should be considered what ? Potential Poison
List the 6 Rights of Proper Drug Administration: 1. Right Drug 2. Right Dose 3. Right Time 4. Right Route 5. Right Patient 6. Right Documentation
True or False: Veterinarians and Veterinary Technicians are accountable for the safe administration of medications True
Medications should be prepared in an area with ____ ________ and _______ ____________. 1. Good Lighting 2. Minimal Distrations
All verbal drug orders from a prescribing DVM should be documented when ? As soon as possible
What should every drug order include: 1. Date and Time the order was written 2. Drug Name 3. Dose Administered 4. Route and Site 5. Patient's Response 6. DVM/Tech Signature or Intials
True or False: When in doubt of a drug calculation, have the dose recalculated and checked by another veterinary professional. True
When is it always important to always read the label 3 times: 1. When TAKING the medication from its location 2. When REMOVING the medication from its container 3. When RETURNING the container to its location
Why are daily drug doses given at a specified time during the day? To keep the plasma levels of the drug at the proper level to cause the desired effects.
what can happen if drug doses are given too frequently ? Toxic levels
What can happen if drug doses are not given frequently enough ? Sub-therapeutic levels
What is the basic principle of documentation ? "IF IT ISN'T WRITTEN DOWN... IT DIDN'T HAPPEN"
BID Twice A Day
Q12h Every 12 Hours
SID Once A Day
q8h Every 8 Hours
TID Three Times A Day
EOD Every Other Day
It should be documented if an owner refuses treatment for the pet, including what ? The reason for the refusal
True or False: Providing clients with the information needed to make proper decisions for their animals is one way to ensure that optimal medical care is given to the patient. True
The Goal of Drug Therapy is: To deliver the desired concentration of a drug within the target area of the body to ultimately achieve the desired effect.
The Therapeutic Range of a drug is: The drug's concentration in the body that produces the desired effect in the animal with minimal or no toxicity
When does The Onset Of Action of a drug begin ? The drug enters the plasma and last until it reaches the minimum effective concentration (MEC)
When does Peak Action of a drug occur ? The drug reaches its highest concentration in the blood or plasma.
What is the Duration Of Action of a drug ? The length of time the drug produces the desired effect
True or False: The concept that "More Is Better" holds true in pharmacology. False, can produce toxic levels that will damage to the body organs
True or False: The concept that "Less Is Better" holds true in pharmacology. False, will not produce toxic levels but will not achieve proper levels for the beneficial effects.
Maintaining drugs in the therapeutic range involves Maintaining a balance among : (Pharmokinetics) 1. Rate the drug enters the body 2. Absorption of the drug 3. Distribution of the drug 4. Metabolism of the drug 5. Excretion of the drug
Three major drug factors involved in keeping the drug concentration within its therapeutic range include: 1. Route of Administration 2. Drug Dose 3. Dosage Interval
Parenteral drugs: Drugs given by a route other than the GI Tract (injectables, inhaled, or topical)
Enteral drugs: Drugs given through the GI Tract (by mouth)
True or False: Drug may cause one effect when given parenterally and another effect when given orally True
List the drug factors that influence the route of administration: 1. Drug Forms (some drugs are insoluble, some are soluble, or some are destroyed by stomach acids, this will effect the route) 2. Animal Factors (vomiting, critically ill, or temperature)
List the 3 most common injectable administration routes used in animals: 1. Intravenous (IV) 2. Intramuscular (IM) 3. Subcutaneous (SQ)
List the parts of a syringe: 1. Luer-Lok Tip (grooves that lock needle in place) 2. Slip-Lok Tip (no grooves, needle slides in place) 3. Barrel 4. Plunger 5. Flange 6. Rubber Stopper
List the less common injectable administration routes used in animals: 1. Intraperitoneal (IP) 2. Intradermal (ID) 3. Intra-arterial (IA) 4. Intracardiac (IC) 5. Intraosseous (OS) 6. Intrathecal (epidural)
Emulsion A mixture of two or more liquids that are normally unmixable or unblendable
You should always make sure what is not in the syringe or IV line before giving an IV injection? Air Bubbles
Pervascularly The IV drug is accidentally injected out of the blood vessel, can cause tissue inflammation or necrosis.
List the three Intravenous injection techniques: 1. Bolus Administration 2. Intermittent Therapy 3. Continuous Infusion of Fluids
Bolus Administration: A concentration mass of medication to achieve immediate high concentration of a drug.
Intermittent IV Therapy: Diluting a drug dose in a small volume of fluid and giving over a 30 to 60 minutes multiple times a day
Continuous Infusion: Administration of large volumes of fluid continuously over an extended period of time.
Drugs given Intravenously have a _____ onset of action, but a _______ duration of activity as compared to IM or SQ injections. Rapid, Shorter
What type of solutions should not be injected SQ ? 1. Irritating Solutions 2. Hyperosmotic Solutions
Solutions: A clear liquid that contains one or more solvents and one or more solutes, settles out and has to be shaken before given.
Suspensions: A liquid preparation that contains solid particles suspended in a suitable medium, does not settle out.
Repository/Depot Preparation A substance that delays absorption
List two temperatures that can manipulate the Rate of Absorption of SQ injections: 1. Warm = Vasodilation 2. Cold = Vasocontriction
Subcutaneous Injections have a ______ onset of action and a ______ duration of activity as compared to IV or IM injections. Slower, Longer
Describe how an inhaled drug makes it into the bloodstream: 1. Breath gas into the respiratory tract 2. Enters the alveoli of the lungs 3. Diffuses across the alveoli membrane into the capillaries 4. Travels down the bloodstream to cause the desired effect
List the Topical Drug Forms: 1. Aerosol 2. Cream 3. Gel 4. Lotion 5. Ointment 6. Paste 7. Powder
Oral Administration delivers the drug directly to the animal's _____________________. Gastrointestinal Tract (GI)
What series of events must orally administered drugs go through before they enter the bloodstream and what effects does this have on the drug ? 1. Release from the dose form (dissolving the dose) 2. Transported across the GI tract ( absorbed in stomach or intestines) 3. Passes through the Liver (render it less or more active)
Why shouldnt enteric coated medications be given with an antacid ? They are designed to break down in the intestines, but antacids cause them to breakdown in the stomach causing stomach irritation.
What is the only type of tablet that should be divided and why ? Scored Tablets - because it is guaranteed by the manufacture to distribute equal amounts of the drug throughout the tablet.
List the Oral Drug Forms: 1. Tablets 2. Capsules 3. Boluses 4. Powders 5. Solutions 6. Suspensions
True or False: The more complex the digestive tract, the longer it will take to attain therapeutic blood levels of an orally administered drug (ex. Ruminants) True
The Dose of a drug is: The amount of drug administered at one time to achieve the desired effect.
The Dosage of a drug is: The amount of drug per animal species body weight or measure.
Loading Dose: Initial dose of drug given to get the drug concentration up to the therapeutic range in a very short period of time.
Maintenance Dose: Dose of a drug that maintains or keeps the drug in the therapeutic range.
Total Daily Dose: Total amount of drug delivered in 24 hours
Dosage Interval : How frequently the dosage is given
Dosage Regimen: The dosage, dosage interval, route, and duration of treatment together.
Which of the following doctors order is the dosage (35 mg/kg PO BID x 5 days) ? 35 mg/kg
Which of the following doctors order is the dosage interval (35 mg/kg PO BID x 5 days) ? BID (twice a day or every 12 hours)
Which of the following doctors order is the route (35 mg/kg PO BID x 5 days) ? PO (by mouth or orally)
True or False: Stop the treatment once the animal appears to be feeling better False, always finish the doctors directions for the medication
Counteracting Drug Toxicities: Must act quickly to counteract any problems caused by drug treatments
List the 6 causes of drug toxicity: 1. Outright Overdose 2. Relative Overdose 3. Side Effects 4. Accidental Exposure 5. Interaction with other drugs 6. Incorrect Treatment
Created by: rdoneal



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