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Medical Terminology

Week 7 - Integumentary System

TermDefinition
epithelial tissue tissue that makes up the skin
dermatology the study of skin
epidermis the outermost layer of the skin; several layers thick and doesn't contain the blood vessels (known as avascular); depends on the deeper layers for nourishment
dermis means skin
squamous epithelium composed of flat, plate-like cells; cells are arranged in many layers called "stratified squamous epithelium"
basal layer the deepest layer of the epidermis; cells layer, multiply, and push forward into the basal layer; as the cells move superficially, they die and become filled with keratin
keratin a protein that provides skin with a waterproofing properties
melanocytes cells in the basal layer which produce and contain a black pigment
melanin the black pigment produced by melanocytes; protects the skin from some of the harmful rays of the sun and is responsible for skin pigmentation
albinism the absence of normal pigmentation; true albinism means that the hair, skin and eyes have no pigmentation
dermis the layer directly deep to the epidermis; composed of blood and lymph vessels, nerve fibers and the accessory organs of the skin; contains connective tissue
corium the dermis
stratum basale/stratum germinativum deepest or basal layer that continually multiplies to replenish cells lost from the epidermal surface
cuboidal cells cubelike cells that are arranged in rows
stratum spinosum the layer immediately superficial to the stratum basale, which is the thickest in hairless regions and in areas of high wear and tear; aka: prickle or spinous layer
keratinization and desquamation both begin in the stratum spinosum; keratinization is the development of the hard, protein constituent of hair, nails, epidermis, horny structures and tooth enamel; desquamation is the process in which cell organelles gradually dissolve
stratum granulosum the layer immediately superficial to the stratum spinosum; cells contain keratin granules in their cytoplasm
stratum lucidum the layer immediately superficial to the stratum granulosum, which is clear b/c of the accumulation of keratin fibers in cell cytoplasm; layer is not present in all species but when present it is found in areas of high wear and tear (ie. foot pads)
stratum corneum the most superficial layer of the epidermis; consists of layers of dead, highly keratinized and flattened cells; aka: horny layer
fibroblasts fiber-producing cells; collagen is the major fiber in the dermis
collagen tough, flexible, fibrous protein found in skin, bone, cartilage, tendons and ligaments
histiocytes phagocytic cells that engulf foreign substances; aka: tissue macrophages
mast cells cells that respond to insult by producing and releasing histamine and heparin
histamine chemical released in response to allergens that cause itching
heparin anticoagulant chemical released in response to injury
perception the ability to recognize sensory stimuli; received by nerve impulses that recognize temperature, touch, pain and pressure
tactile perception the ability to recognize touch sensation
subcutaneous layer located deep to or under the dermis and is composed of connective tissue; contains a large amount of fat or lipid
adipocytes fat cells that produce lipid; released from its glands through ducts that open into the hair follicles
subaceous glands (oil glands) secrete an oily substance called sebum; located in the dermis and are closely associated with hair follicles; moves from the hair follicle to the skin surface, where it lubricates the skin; slightly acidic and retards bacterial growth on the skin
ducts tubelike passages
ductules tiny ducts
holocrine glands the secreting cells and their secretions make up the discharge produced
where subaceous glands are found found in the anal sacs, circumoral and supracaudal glands (cats use these to mark territory when they groom and rub their tail)
sweat glands (sudoriferous glands) aggregations of cells that are located in the dermis; divided into eccrine glands and apocrine glands
eccrine glands produce and secrete water, salt, and waste (sweat) and are located in various regions of the body depending on the species
apocrine glands produce and secrete a strong-smelling substance into the hair follicles; found throughout the body,
hyperthermia / hypothermia sweat glands help regulate body temp from becoming too high or too low
hidrosis the production and excretion of sweat
anhidrosis the abnormal reduction of sweating
hyperhidrosis excessive sweating
ceruminous glands modified sweat glands that are located in the ear canal; secrete cerumen
cerumen a waxy substance of varying colors depending on the species; aka: ear wax
pil/i, pil/o, trich/o meaning hair
hair shaft the portion of the hair extending beyond the skin surface; composed of the cuticle, cortex and medulla
cuticle one cell layer thick and appears scaly
cortex the main component of the hair shaft, is several layers thick and responsible for coat color
medulla the innermost component of the hair shaft
hair follicles sacs that hold the hair fibers
arrector pili a tiny muscle attached to the hair follicle that causes the hair to stand erect in response to cold temperatures or stress
piloerection the condition of the hair standing straight up, called "raising the hackles"
fur short, fine, soft hair
pelt skin in addition to fur or hair
guard hairs long, straight, stiff hairs that form the outer coat; aka: primary hairs or topcoat; include tail and mane hair, bristly hair of swine and most of the fur hair
secondary hairs finer, softer, and wavy hair; aka: undercoat; include wool and wavy hair located near the skin of rabbits
tactile hair long, brittle, extremely sensitive hairs usually located on the face; aka: vibrissae (ie. whiskers)
cilia thin, short hairs (ie. eyelashes)
simple pattern hair growth guard hairs that grow from separate follicular openings, as in cattle
compound pattern hair growth multiple guard hairs that grow from single follicles, as in dogs
shedding normal hair loss caused by temperature, hormones, photoperiod (light), nutrition and other non-disease cause
distal phalanx covered by nails, claws or hooves
walls usually located dorsal and lateral to the distal phalanx
sole located ventral to the distal phalanx and usually is flaky
foot pads (aka: tori) provide cushioning and protection for the bones of the foot; usually thick and composed of keratinized epithelium; has a SQ layer that contains a large # of adipose cells and elastic connective tissue; sweat glands are found in most mammalian foot pads
digital pads dogs and cats have these on the palmar and plantar surfaces of the phalanges
metacarpal and metatarsal pads singular pads located on the palmar and plantar surfaces of the metacarpal and metatarsal areas, respectively
carpal pads located on the palmar surface of each carpus; do not bear weight when the animal is standing
digitigrade animals dogs and cats; animals that walk on their toes with only the digital and metacarpal and metatarsal pads making contact with the ground
plantigrade animals animals that have well-developed foot pads (ie. primates); walk with phalanges, metacarpals and metatarsals, and carpal and tarsal bones making contact with the ground
nails and claws keratin plates covering the dorsal surface of the distal phalanx; the dorsal and lateral surface of the claw is covered by the wall and the ventral surface is the sole; beneath wall and sole is connective tissue dermis (contains blood vessels and nerves
quick the sensitive tissue located in the nails/claws
quicking describes trimming the nail or claw to the level of the dermis; results in bleeding or pain (onych/o means claw)
hooves (ungul/o means hoof) the horny covering of the distal phalanx in ungulates or hooved animals, such as equine, ruminants and swine; some ungulates have a solid hoof (horses) and some have cloven or split hooves (ruminants and swine); ventral surface of the hoof is the sole
corium the dermis of the hoof; located under the epidermal surface of the hoof wall, sole and frog; responds tot he quick
coronary band region where hoof meets the skin; analogous to the cuticle of the human nail; the site of hoof wall growth; aka: coronet
periople flaky tissue band located at the junction of the coronary band and the hoof wall and extends distally; widens at the heel to cover the bulbs of the heels
wall epidermal tissue that includes the toe (front), quarters (sides) and heels (back)
bars raised V-shaped structure on the ventral surface of the hoof; located on either side of the frog
sole softer hoof tissue located on the ventral surface of the hoof
frog V-shaped pad of soft horn located in the central region of the ventral hoof surface of equine (located between the bars); when weight is put on the frog, blood is forced out of the foot to promote circulation of blood throughout the foot
bulbs of heel upward thickening of the frog above the heels of the wall
dewclaws rudimentary bones; dogs - first digit, cloven-hoofed animals - digits II and V
chestnuts vestigial pads in equine; located on the medial surface of the leg
ergots vestigial pads in equine; located in a tuft of hair on the fetlock joints; correspond to metacarpal and metatarsal pads in the dog
horns protective structures located in the head region of animals; permanent structures that grow continuously after bird; grow from the frontal skull bones and originate from keratinized epithelium
cornification the conversion of epithelium into keratin or horn
polled breeds that are naturally hornless
antlers not permanent structures and are shed and regrown annually; grow from the skull and are initially covered with skin called "velvet" (rubbed off after skin dies); after velvet is rubbed off, bone is exposed and antlers lose their blood supply and are shed
biopsy removal of living tissue for examination of life
incisional biopsy the removal of a piece of a tumor or lesion for examination
excisional biopsy the removal of an entire tumor or lesion in addition to a margin surrounding tissue for examination
needle biopsy the insertion of a sharp instrument into a tissue for examination
culture diagnostic or research procedure used to allow microbes to reproduce in predetermined media; performed using media that contains specific nutrients necessary for optimal growth of particular microbes
tissue culture takes epithelial cells and grows them in a medium so that intracellular microbes such as viruses can replicate
exfoliative cytology scraping of cells from tissue and examination under a microscope
intradermal skin testing injection of test substances into the skin layer to observe a reaction; used for diagnosis of atopy with the injection of multiple allergens or for TB testing by injecting TB into the skin layer and observing the injection site for post-injection reaction
purified protein derivative PPD testing for Tuberculosis
skin scrape microscopic examination of skin for the presence of mites
abrasion injury in which superficial layers of the skin are scraped
absess localized collection of pus
acne skin inflammation caused by plugged sebaceous glands and comedone development from papules and pustules
chin acne common condition in cats in which acne develops on the chin and lip area
acute moist dermatitis bacterial skin disease that is worsened by licking and scratching; aka: hot spot
alopecia hair loss resulting in hairless patches or complete lack of hair
shedding normal hair loss due to various causes
atopy hypersensitivity reaction in animals involving pruritus with secondary dermatitis; commonly called "allergies" or "allergic dermatitis"
hypersensitization increased response to an allergen
hyposensitization decreased response to an allergen; animals with atopy may undergo a series of hyposensitization injectiosn to decrease their response to a specific allergen
bullae multiple contained skin elevations filled with fluids that is greater than 0.5cm in diameter (sing: bulla)
burn tissue injury caused by heat, flame, electricity, chemicals or radiation
carbuncle cluster of furuncles
carcinoma malignant neoplasm of epithelial tissue
cellulitis inflammation of connective tissue; may be diffuse (widespread) or localized (well-defined area)
comedo blackhead or building of sebum and keratin in a pore (pl: comedones)
contusion injury that does not break the skin; characterized by pain, swelling and discoloration
crust collection of dried sebum and cell debris
dermatitis inflammation of the skin
contact dermatitis inflammation of the skin caused by touching an irritant
dermatocellulitis inflammation of the skin and connective tissue
dermatomycosis abnormal skin condition caused by superficial fungus; aka: dermatophytosis
dermatophytes superficial fungi that are found on the skin (ie. ringworm)
discoid lupus erythematosus canine autoimmune disease in which the bridge of the nose (and sometimes the face and lips) exhibit depigmentation, erythema, scaling and erosions; abbr: DLE;
deskeratosis abnormal alteration in keratinization
ecchymosis purplish nonelevated patch of bleeding into the skin; aka: bruise
ecthyma skin infection with shallow eruptions caused by a pox virus; aka: soremouth
eczema general term for inflammatory skin disease characterized by erythemia, papules, vesicles, crusts and scabs either alone or in combination
eosinophilic granuloma complex collective name for autoimmune lesion of eosinophilic ulcer, plaque and linear granuloma (found in cats, rarely dogs); affects the skin, mucocutaneous junctions and oral mucosa of cats (raised, ulcerated plaques)
eosinophilic ulcer/rodent ulcer located on the lip or oral mucosa of cats
eosinophilic plaques raised pruritic lesions no the ventral abdomen of cats
linear granulomas located in a line usually on the caudal aspect of the hindlimb of cats
erythema skin redness
erythroderma abnormal redness of skin occurring over a widespread area
exanthema cutaneous rash caused by fever or disease
feline miliary dermatitis skin disease of cats in which multiple crusts or bumps are present predominantly on the dorsum; can be associated with many causes
fissue cracklike sore
fistula abnormal passage from an internal organ to the body surface or between 2 internal organs
flea allergy dermatitis inflammation of the skin caused by an allergic reaction to flea saliva; abbr: FAD
allergen a substance that produces an allergic response
footrot bacterial hoof disease that spreads from the interdigital skin to the deeper foot structures
frostbite tissue damage caused by extreme cold or contact with chemicals with extreme temperature (ie. liquid nitrogen)
furuncle localized skin infection in a gland or hair follicle; aka: boil
furunculosis the abnormal condition of persistent boils over a period of time
gangrene necrosis associated with loss of circulation
necrosis condition of dead tissue
petrefaction decay that produces a foul smell
granuloma small area of healing tissue
hemangioma benign tumor composed of newly formed blood vessels
hyperkeratosis increased growth of the horny layer of the skin; aka: acanthokeratodermia
infestations occupation and dwelling of a parasite on the external surface of tissue
ectoparasites live on the external surface of the host
louse a wingless parasitic insect; pl: lice
pediculosis lice infestation
mite an insect with a hard exoskeleton and paired, jointed legs
mange common term for skin disease caused by mites; types of mites - sarcoptic and demodecticc
chippers infestation by mite larvae that results in severe pruritus
ascariasis infestation with ticks or mites
maggots insect larvae found especially in dead or decaying tissue
myiasis infestation by fly larvae
keratosis abnormal condition of epidermal overgrowth and thickening
laceration accidental cut into the skin
lesion pathologic change of tissue; used to describe abnormalities in many locations
lipoma benign growth of fat cells; aka: fatty tumor
macule tumor or growth of pigmented cells
malignant melanoma the term used to describe cancer of pigmented skin cells
amelanotic melanoma cancer of unpigmented malilgnant melanoma
nodule small knot protruding above the skin
onychomycosis superficial fungal infection of the claw
pallor skin paleness
papilloma benign epithelial growth that is lobed
papule small, raised skin lesion less than 0.5cm in diameter
parakeratosis lesion characterized by thick scales, cracking and red raw surface caused by the persistence of keratinocyte nuclei int he horny layer of skin
paronychia bacterial or viral infection of the claw
patch localized skin color change greater than 1cm in diameter
pemphigus group of immune-mediated skin diseases characterized by vesicles, bullae and ulcers
pemphigus vulgaris most common form of pemphigus; consists of shallow ulcerations frequently involving the oral mucosa and mucocutaneous junctions
petechiae small, pinpoint hemorrhages (sing: petechia)
plaque solid raised lesion greater than 0.5cm in diameter
polyp growth from mucous membranes
pruritus itching
purpura condition characterized by hemorrhage into the skin that causes bruising; two types: ecchymosis and petechia
pustule small, circumscribed (contained to a limited area), pus-filled skin elevation
pyoderma skin condition containing pus
pus an inflammation product made up of leukocytes, cell debris and fluid
purulent means containing or producing pus
puppy pyoderma a skin disease in puppies characterized by pus-containing lesions
juvenile pyoderma a skin disease in puppies that progresses to a systemic disease characterized by fever, anorexia and enlarged and abscessing lymph notes; aka: puppy strangles
sarcoma malignant neoplasm of soft tissue arising from connective tissue
scale flake
scar mark left by a healing lesion where excess collagen was produced to replace injured tissue; aka: cicatrix or cicatrices
sebaceous cyst closed sac of yellow fatty material; contains fluid or semosolid material
skin tag small growth that hairs from the body by stalks
ulcer erosion of skin or mucous membrane
decubital ulcers erosions of skin or mucous membranes as a result of prolonged pressure; aka: bedsores
urticaria localized areas of swelling that itch; aka: hives
verrucae warts
vesicle contained skin elevation filled with fluid that is greater than 0.5cm in diameter; aka: blister, bulla or bleb
wheal smooth, slightly raised swollen area that itches
cauterization destruction of tissue using electric current, heat or chemicals
cryosurgery destruction of tissue using extreme cold
debridement removal of tissue and foreign material to aid healing
lance to open or piece with a lancet (scalpel blade) to allow drainage; abscesses are lanced to drain the pus present in the area
laser device that transfers light into an intense beam for various purposes
papule a small, solid, raised lesion that is less than 0.5cm in diameter
plaque a solid, raised lesion that is greater than 0.5cm in diameter
macule a flat discolored lesion that is less than 1 cm in diameter
patch a flat discolored lesion that is greater than 1cm in diameter
scale a flaking or dry patch made up of excess dead epidermal cells
crust a collection of dried serum and cellular debris
wheal a smooth, slightly elevated swollen area that is redder or paler than the surrounding skin; usually accompanied by itching
cyst a closed sac or pouch containing fluid or semisolid material
pustule small circumscribed elevation of the skin containing pus
vesicle a circumscribed elevation of skin containing fluid that is less than 0.5cm in diameter
bulla a large vesicle that is more than 0.5cm in diameter
ulcer an open sore or erosion of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tissue loss
fissure a groove or crack-like sore in the skin
Created by: mlmertens91