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Animal Tech III


*What is the most common route of administration of vaccines today ? Subcutaneous
*List the core vaccines for felines and where they should be administered 1. Rabies = Right Rear Limb = core vaccine 2. FVRCP = Right Front Limb = core vaccine 3. FIV/FeLV = Left Rear Limb = elective vaccine
*Name two circumstances when a subcutaneous injection would not be the best method to administer medication 1. Severely obese as it would alter absorption rate 2. Severely dehydrated as it would delay absorption and distribution of medication 3. Critically ill or debilitated as it would not absorb and distributed quickly enough.
*When administering subcutaneous fluids, how many ml per site are normally given? 50 to 100 ml per site
*What temperature should subcutaneous fluids be given ? Body Temperature
*What is the preferred site for most subcutaneous injections ? Dorsolateral or ventrolateral from neck to hip
*Why should insulin be avoided in the intrascapular region ? Poor absorption
*Where should insulin be administered ? Dorsolateral or Ventrolateral from neck to hips, altering sites each time it is given
*When giving a SQ injection, you should pinch a fold of skin. Why should you inject your needle parallel to the fold of skin versus perpendicular to the fold ? To avoid penetrating both sites of the tent and depositing fluid outside of the patient.
*If you need to give multiple SQ injections at one time, how far apart should they be ? Several Centimeters apart
*Proximal Toward the point of attachment
*Distal Below the point of attachment
*Medial Toward the middle
*Lateral Toward the sides
*Caudal Toward the tail
*What is the color of a 25 gauge needle and ml syringe? Where is common site of injection ? 1. Red 2. 1 ml syringe 3. Small vessels/patients 4. Medial Saphenous
*What is the color of a 22 gauge needle and ml syringe? Where is common site of injection ? 1. Blue 2. 3 ml syringe 3. Routine Blood Work 4. Jugular, Lateral Saphenous, or Cephalic
*What is the color of a 20 gauge needle and ml syringe? Where is common site of injection ? 1. Pink 2. Syringe needed 3. Larger patient 4. SQ Fluids
*What is the color of a 18 gauge needle and ml syringe? Where is common site of injection ? 1. Green 2. Syringe needed 3. Large Animal Venipuncture/Injections 4. SQ Fluids
*What is the color of a 16 gauge needle and ml syringe? Where is common site of injection ? 1. Gray 2. Syringe needed 3. Large Animal Medicine
*What is the most commonly used needles in Small Animal Medicine ? 1. Red = 25 gauge needle 2. Blue = 22 gauge needle 3. Pink = 20 gauge needle 4. Green = 18 gauge needle 5. Gray = 16 gauge needle
*What is the curved Tip Syringe used for ? To flush away bacteria from infected area
*40 Unit Insulin needles Used for Insulin approved by FDA for Animals (Dogs and Cats)
*100 Unit Insulin needles Used for Human Insulins
*Luer Lock Tip Part of the syringe that is used to screw on a needle
*Slip Lock Tip Part of the syringe that is used to slip on a needle
*Barrel Part of the syringe that is used to hold fuid
*Rubber Stopper Part of the syringe that is used to stop plunger in the barrel
*Plunger Part of the syringe that is used to push fluids out of the barrel.
*Shaft The metal part of the needle that is injected in patient
*Bevel The angled part of the needle at the point, inject with the bevel end up
*Lumen The opening at the point of the needle
*Point The end of the needle
*Hub The plastic part of the needle that is attached to the syringe
*Hilt The part of the needle where the shaft meets the hub
*How to hold a syringe ? The ultimate goal is to aspirate and inject with one hand, with minimal movement of the needle in the patient
*What size needles are commonly used for IM injections in small animals ? 22 - 25 gauge needles
*What IM location is not recommended in very thin animals ? Lumbosacral muscles
*When injections are made into the semimembranosus or semitendinosus muscles, the needle should enter on the _______ aspect of the muscle and directed ________ to prevent penetration of the _______ nerve. 1. Lateral 2. Caudally 3. Sciatic
*True or False: You should always aspirate your plunger to check for blood prior to giving an IM injection. True
*Where are injections for heartworm treatments administered ? Deep lumbar injections in the third to fifth lumbar region
*Name the group of muscles that are occasionally used for injections on the caudal aspect of the forelimbs: Tricep Muscles
*List 2 reasons ID injections are formed ? 1. Desensitize the skin with a local anasthetic 2. Perform allergy skin testing
*What size needles are used for ID injections ? 25-27 gauge needle
*True or False: The neck is a common location for IM injections in small animals. False, Large Animals
*What volume of fluids is commonly injected into the skin for an ID injection ? 0.1 ml volume of allergen
*What muscles used for IM injections run along the dorsolateral portion of the back ? Lumbosacral or Epaxial Muscles
*What muscles used for IM injections are located on the caudal aspect of the forelimbs ? Tricep Muscles
*What muscles used for IM injections are located on the caudal aspect of the rear limb ? Semimembranosus and Semitendinosus Muscles
*What muscles used for IM injections are located on the cranial aspect of the rear limb ? Quadricep Muscles
*ID injections The injection of a substance between the dermis and the epidermis.
*What is the primary purpose for ID injections ? 1. Skin testing 2. Allergy testing 3. Administer local anesthesia to desensitize the skin 4. Treat nodular skin lesions
*Why do we only use water moistened gauze to clean area for ID injections ? To prevent reaction to a cleaning solution
*Erthyema Redness
*When is the neck commonly used for IM injections ? In large animals
*Do you aspirate to check for blood for IM injections ? Yes
*Is it common practice to massage the area of skin after an ID injection ? No
*Is it common practice to massage the area of skin after an IM injection ? Yes
*What restraint positions should be used for IM injections ? 1. Standing 2. Lateral Recumbency (Semis)
*List 3 functions of 70% isopropyl alcohol when performing venipuncture: 1. Vasodilation 2. Wet Hair Down 3. Remove Superficial Contaminates
*List 2 reasons to perform venipuncture: 1. IV injections 2. Blood Collections
*The majority of venipuncture in cats and small dogs is performed using what gauge needle ? 22 gauge needle
*List the tools that are commonly used to perform venipuncture: 1. Needle 2. Syringe 3. Alcohol 4. Blood tubes 5. Restraint tools, if needed
*What can excessive negative pressure within a vein cause to happen to that vein ? Collapse
*What is EDTA ? Anticoagulant used in the purple top tubes (CBC, blood smears)
*List the 3 common venipuncture sites in a cat: 1. External Jugular Vein 2. Cephalic Vein 3. Medial Saphenous Vein
*List the 3 common venipuncture sites in a dog: 1. External Jugular Vein 2. Cephalic Vein 3. Lateral Saphenous Vein
*What should you do to a vessel once a blood sample has been taken or an injection given and why ? Release occlusion and immediately apply pressure to site for approximately 30 seconds to stop bleeding
*What can vigorous shaking of a blood tube result in ? Hemolysis
*What can forceful retraction on the syringe plunger do to a RBC ? Alter the cell morpology
*The majority of venipuncture in large dogs and farm animals is performed using what gauge needle ? 20 Gauge needle
*What is Hydrogen Peroxide used for ? To clean patient after venipuncture
*What anticoagulant is used in the Blue top tube ? Sodium Citrate
*List 3 indications for temporary venous access 1. Meds need to reach high blood levels rapidly 2. Meds will not be absorbed via a different route 3. Administer large volumes of fluid 4. Administer meds frequently, or continuously
*Over-the-Needle Catheter (OTN) 1. Indwelling Cephalic IV Catheter 2. Frequent Arterial sampling
*Winged Needle or Butterfly Catheter 1. Blood draws on patient that are moving 2. Administer large amount of medications 3. Short-term use catheter or one-time administration
*Through-the-Needle Catheter (TTN) 1. Indwelling Jugular IV Catheter 2. Frequent or Large amounts of blood draws
*Multilumen Catheter 1. Multi port catheter 2. Allows various substances to be injected 3. Several CRIs and Fluids at the same time
*List the common vessels used for catheterization Cephalic, Medial Saphenous, Lateral Saphenous, and Jugular
*How do you prepare a site for catheterization 1. Gather all supplies to have on hand 2. Choose correct size catheter and flush 3. Flush T-port and clamp it or gather injection cap 4. Prepare tape strips 5. Clip the hair in a rectangle 6. Use surgical Scrub/Solution to scrub area
*List 2 pieces that can be used to cap a catheter 1. T-port (T-set) 2. Injection Cap
*What is used to secure a catheter in place ? Zonas Tape
*List 4 advantages of placing a jugular catheter over a peripheral catheter 1. Stay in place for a longer duration 2. Handle solutions with a greater osmolality 3. To prevent tissue irritation or phlebitis more safely 4. Measurement of Central Venous Pressure 5. Frequent blood draws needed 6. Administer parenteral nutrition
*What is the maximum amount of time a catheter should be left in place ? 48-72 hrs
*If a catheter is not being used for continuos fluid therapy, what should be done with it ? Why? It should be capped securely, wrapped with vet wrap, and flushed with heparinized saline periodically to maintain patency.
*Type of Catheter that would be best for a one-time administration of 5ml of IV medication Butterfly Catheter
*Type of catheter best for 24 hours or more for administration of fluids Over-the-Needle Catheter (OTN)
*In which species are you more likely to use a lateral saphenous vein for venipuncture ? Canine
*Most common location for a Through-the-Needle (TTN) catheter in dogs and cats Jugular
*What direction (toward what) is the jugular catheter's (TTN) tip pointed upon insertion ? Toward the Heart
*Where should needles and syringes be discarded ? Sharps Container
*Person who occludes vessels for cephalic or saphenous venipuncture. Restrainer
*What can happen to a vein if the plunger is too forcefully retracted during venipuncture ? Collapse
*What can happen if too small of a needle or too much force is used when collecting blood samples ? Hemolysis
*Person who occludes vessel for jugular venipuncture Phlebotomist
*A 3.0 ml syringe measures to the ______ place. Tenths
*How should the patient be positioned for a right lateral saphenous venipuncture. Left Lateral Recumbent
*In which species are you more likely to use a medial saphenous vein for venipuncture ? Feline
*What is used to occlude a vessel if the restrainer is unable to occlude ? Tourniquet
*Most common location for an IV catheter in dogs and cats Cephalic Vessel
*Describe 1 way to reduce accidental punctures of a needle: Do not walk through clinic (area) with a needle pointed out, always point needle down and put in sharps container as soon as possible.
*What is the recommended site for a SQ injection of medication be given on a dog? How long would it take for this medication to be absorbed from this site? 1. Dorsolateral or Ventrolateral from neck to hip 2. Within 15-30 minutes
*How many milliliters of SQ fluids should be administered at one site in an animal? How long does it generally take for these fluids to be absorbed? 1. 50ml to 100 ml per site 2. Within 6-8 hours
* What gauge needles should be used for SQ fluid administration? 20 to 18 gauge needles
*SC Subcutaneous
*True or False: The needle should be perpendicular to the long axis of the tent when giving a SQ injection. False, should be parellal
*What are insulin needles measured in ? 40 to 100 units
* What two situations would warrant using SQ fluids? 1. Patient is slightly dehydrated 2. Patient is in danger of becoming dehydrated
*What are two tools that may be used when restraining a fractious feline? 1. Cat bag 2. Towel (Kitty Burrito)
*True or False: The larger bore the needle, the more painful the injections. True
*Name two positions in which a dog could be restrained in to receive a SQ injection. 1. Sternal Recumbency 2. Standing
*Which direction should the bevel of the needle be positioned when giving an injection? Bevel end Up
* IM Intramuscular
*The rabies vaccine is typically given in the? Right Rear Limb
*Lateral Recumbency On its Side
*True or False: No more than 5 ml of medication should be injected into a muscle False, 3 ml
*True or False: The neck is a common location for IM injections in small animals False, Large Animals
*A 3.0 ml syringe measures to the ______ place. Tenths
*True or False: ID injections are commonly performed with 27-25 gauge needles. True
*The FIV/FeLV vaccine should be given in the ? Left Rear Limb
*What muscle is located cranial to the femur and can be used for IM injections? Quadriceps
*True or False: Vaccines are primarily given via IM injections. False, SQ injections
*When administering immiticide (heartworm treatment) to a patient, where should the IM injection be given? Deep lumbar injection between the 3rd and 5th lumbar region
*True or False: When preparing the site for allergy testing, we should scrub the area with a chlorhexadine scrub (antibacterial agent) to make sure that the site is as clean as possible. False, use sterile water to clean site to prevent irritation
* What is the name of the muscles that are used for IM injections in the "back" area? Lumbosacral or Epaxial Muscles
*When is the IM location on the "back" not recommended? If the patient is very thin or dehydrated
*What are two factors that need to be considered when choosing the size needle and syringe needed for an IM injection? 1. The thickness of the medication being injected 2. The muscles being used for the IM injection
*Why do we administer IM injections in the neck region in large animals? To not damage muscles or meat in market animals
*What veins are used to collect blood in a dog? 1. Lateral Saphenous 2. Cephalic 3. Jugular
*How should you dispose of used needle and syringes? Needle and attached syringe should be disposed of in the sharps container
*Sternal Recumbency Animal positioned with its abdomen on the table or floor
*This is NOT a reason to inject medications via the IV route Those that need to reach low blood levels
*List the reasons to inject medications via the IV route 1. Reach high blood levels 2. Irritation to tissues 3. Insufficiently absorbed any other route
*You are restraining for right cephalic venipuncture for a dog on a treatment table in sternal recumbency. Which arm/hand extends the limb and occludes the vessle? Which arm/hand controls the head/muzzle? 1. Right arm/hand 2. Left arm/hand
*How does the absorption rate of an IM injection compare with the absorption rate of a SQ injection? IM injections are faster absorbed than SQ injections
*Name two instances where it is crucial to communicate with the restrainer 1. Giving injections - restrain tighter 2. Venipuncture - release occulsion or apple pressure for occulsion
*What is one reason why we would NOT want to use the cephalic vessel for blood collection? To save the vessel for IV catheter
*What gauge catheter would you choose to place in an adult cat that has normal cephalic vessels? 22 gauge
*What should be used to secure a Jugular Catheter (Central Line) in place once inserted? Sutures
*True or False: An animal is usually sedated for TTN catheter placement True
*True or False: In a severely dehydrated patient, intravenous administration of medications or isotonic fluids is preferred over subcutaneous administration. True
*Trauma to the sciatic nerve is a potential complication when administering an intramuscular injection into which muscle? Semimembranosus/Semitendinosis muscle
*You are unable to place an intravenous catheter on a 2 week old kitten. Which route of administration would be the next best choice for fluid administration? Intraosseous
*True or False: Marginal ear venipuncture is an appropriate blood collection technique for a coagulation profile. False, for an insulin B/G level
*You are collecting blood from a dogs's right lateral saphenous vessel. What position will the dog need to be in ? 1. Standing 2. Left Lateral Recumbency
*When performing venipuncture on a peripheral vessel, where should you make your initial attempt and why? 1. Cephalic 2. Less trauma (jugular) and better draws without collapse(saphenous)
*What is one disadvantage of using the medial saphenous in a patient for venipuncture? Which species is the medial saphenous more likely used on? 1. Lower volume of blood, so go slow to avoid collapsing the vessel 2. Feline
*True or False: Cystocentesis is countraindicated in a patient with a urethral obstruction due to the risk of rupturing the bladder when applying pressure to the bladder to release the urine. False, Manually expressing the bladder
*True or False: The phlebotomist occludes for jugular venipuncture True
*Which catheter is the most likely choice for placing an indwelling catheter in a female dog? Foley Catheter
*Which catheter is most likely the choice for a DVM when unblocking a male cat? Tom Cat Catheter
*Urethral catherization is a "sterile" technique that routinely is used for: 1. Continuously empty the bladder of a recumbent or hospitalized patient 2. Retrieve a urine sample from a canine patient for testing including a culture and sensitivity 3. Relieve a urethral obstruction
*Other than collecting a urine sample, what is an indication for manually expressing a patients bladder Empty patients bladder before surgery
*List two indications for urinary catheter placement in a patient 1. Urethral obstruction 2. Retrieve urine sample
*Name one advantage of collecting urine via the free catch of a voided sample technique Less trauma to the patient
*List the four techniques discussed in class that can be used to obtain a urine sample 1. Free Catch 2. Manually Expressing Bladder 3. Catherization 4. Cystocentesis
*Hematoma Blood leaking out of vessel into the surrounding tissue
*Collapse Overextension of the neck can cause the jugular vein to ________.
*Hydrogen Peroxide Can be used to clean up any bloody messes made during venipuncture.
*Phlebotomist The person who occludes for jugular venipuncture
*Subcutaneous The primary route of injectable vaccine administration
*A 25 gauge needle is typically goin to be what color? Red
*Occluding The process of temporarily stopping blood flow to allow a vessel to fill with blood
*A 3 ml syringe measure to the ______ place. Tenths
*These muscles are located caudal to the femur and are used for IM injections Semimembranosis and Semitendinosis muscles
*A ________ syringe tip allows the needle to tightly screw on Luer Lok
*A rabies vaccine should be administered in the __________ limb. Right Rear Limb
*Aspirating too forcefully on the plunger can cause a vein to ________. Collapse
*A 22 gauge needle or catheter will commonly be what color? Blue
*A 1.0 ml syringe measures to the _________ place. Hundreths
*Digital pressure should be applied to the jugular vein for _________ following venipuncture. 30 seconds
*For jugular venipuncture, one should occlude the vein in the ______________ of the patient. Thoracic Inlet
*The average cat will require ________ whether it is obstructed or unobstructed to place a urinary catheter. Sedation
*Once exposed, the tip of the penis should be thoroughly cleaned with a _________________ agent and rinsed with warm water. Dilute Antiseptic
*Most common reason for catheterization in s male cat is to relieve a _____________________. Urethral Obstruction
*A collection container should be _____ when collecting a free catch urine sample. Clean
*What is the name of the catheter that is shown with a bulb on the end filled with saline or air. Foley Catheter.
Created by: rdoneal