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Medical Terminology

Week 5 - Urinary System

urinary system removes wastes from the body by constantly filtering blood
urea the major waste product of protein metabolism; filtered by the kidney
homeostasis a stable environment in which there is proper balance of water, electrolytes and acids in the body fluids and excess fluids are properly removed from the body
urin/o and ur/o meaning urine or pertaining to urinary organs
urine formed in the kidneys, flows through the ureters to the urinary bladder, is stored in the bladder, flows through the urethra to exit the body
retroperitoneally location of kidneys behind the lining of the abdominal cavity or outside the peritoneal cavity; one kidney is one each side of the vertebral column below the diaphragm
ren/o and nephr/o means kidney
renal artery route in which blood flows "into" the kidneys
renal vein route in which blood flows "out" of the kidneys
blood pressure and filtration filtration of waste products by the kidney depends on blood flow thus BP can affect the rate at which filtration takes place
cortex the outer layer of the kidney
medulla the inner layer of the kidney
nephron the functional unit of the kidney; consists of the glomerus, Bowman's capsule, a proximal convoluted tubule, a loope of Henle, a distal convoluted tubule and a collecting duct
function of nephron forms urine by processes of filtration, reabsorption and secretion
glomerulus where filtration occurs; a cluster of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule (glomerul/o means glomerulus); plural: glomeruli
proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle and collecting tubule where reabsorption occurs
distal convoluted tubule where secretion occurs
renal pelvis the area of the kidney where the nephrons collect before entering the ureters (pyel/o means renal pelvis)
calcyces irregular cup-like spaces that collect urine from the kidney (renal pelvis collects the urine from calyces); singular: calyx
hilus a concave depression located on each kidney; the point of attachment of the renal blood vessels, nerves and ureter; located on the medial surface of the kidney and gives the kidney its "bean" shape
ureters a pair of narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder (ureter/o means ureter)
trigone location at which the ureters enter the urinary bladder; a triangular portion at the base of that organ where the three angles are marked by the two ureteral openings and one urethral opening
urinary bladder a singular hollow muscular organ that holds urine (cyst/o means urinary bladder); very elastic, shape and size depends on how much urine it is holding; flow of urine from ureters into bladder serves as natural valve to control backflow
sphincters controls the flow of urine out of the urinary bladder to the urethra; ring-like muscles close passageway
excretion/elimination/voiding elimination of a substance (can be used in other body systems)
micturition elimination of urine from the body; implies voluntary control of the sphincter muscles (learned)
erythropoietin hormone produced by kidney that stimulates RBC production in the bone marrow
anti-diuretic hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland that suppresses urine formation by reabsorbing more water (abbr: ADH)
aldosterone hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates electrolyte balance via the reabsorption of sodium
urethra a tube extending from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body (urethr/o means urethra); in males, urethra transports both urine and reproductive fluids
urethral meatus external opening of the urethra (meat/o means opening)
uropoiesis the process of urine production
turbid cloudy, may be brown, white, etc; can be present normally for some species (ie. rabbits); color of urine can depend on diet or reproductive cycle
cystocentesis surgical puncture of the urinary bladder, usually to collect urine
cystography radiographic study of the urinary bladder after contrast material has been placed in the urinary bladder via urethral catheter; contrast material is water-soluble; can be single-contrast or double-contrast
cystogram the radiographic film of the urinary bladder after contrast material has been placed in the urinary bladder via urethral catheter
retrograde going backward and can be used to describe the path that contrast material takes; if the contrast material goes in reverse order of how urine normally flows int he body, it's referred to as retrograde
cystoscopy visual examination of the urinary bladder using a fiberoptic instrument
cystoscope the fiberoptic instrument used to access the interior of the urinary bladder
IV pyelogram radiographic study of the kidney (esp. the renal pelvis) and ureters in which a dye is injected into a vein to define structures more clearly; can also help visualize urinary bladder more (abbr: IVP)
pneumocystography radiographic study of the urinary bladder after air has been placed in the bladder via a urethral catheter
radiography imaging of internal structures that is created by exposing specialized film to x-rays
scout film a plain x-ray made without the use of contrast material
retrograde pyelogram radiographic study of the kidney and ureters in which a contrast material is placed directly in the urinary bladder
urinalysis examination of the urine components; can tell us about pH, WBCs, RBCs, protein, glucose, SG (measurement that reflects amount of wastes, minerals and solids in urine) and other factors (abbr: UA)
urinary catheterization insertion of a tube through the urethra into the urinary bladder (usually to collect urine)
albuminuria presence of the major blood protein in urine
anuria complete suppression of urine production
bacteriuria presence of bacteria in urine
crystalluria urine with naturally produced angular solid of definitive form (crystals)
dysuria difficult or painful urination
glucosuria / glycosuria glucose (sugar) in urine
hematuria blood in urine
ketonuria presence of ketones in urine (ketones are produced during increased fat metabolism)
nocturia excessive urination at night
oliguria scanty or little urine
pollakiuria frequent urination
polyuria excessive urination
proteinuria presence of protein in urine
pyuria pus in urine
stranguria slow or painful urination
azotemia presence of uria or other nitrogenous elements in the blood
calculus abnormal mineral deposit; urine may contain crystals that remain in solution in urine; Stones, calculi and liths are formed when crystals precipitate and form solids
lith/o means stone or calculus
casts fibrous or protein materials found in the urine with renal disease and other abnormalities
crystals naturally produced angular solid of definitive form
crystalgia / cystogynia urinary bladder pain
cystitis inflammation of the urinary bladder
cystocele displacement of the urinary bladder through the vaginal wall
epispadias abnormal condition in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis
feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) common disease of cats in which cystitis, urethritis and crystaluria are found; in male cats, urethral obstruction is commonly associated with this disease (emergency!)
glomerulonephritis inflammation of the kidney involving the glomeruli
hydronephrosis dilation of the renal pelvis as a result of an obstruction to urine flow
hydroureter distention of the ureter with urine caused by any blockage
hypospadias abnormal condition in which the urethra opens on the ventral surface of the penis
inappropriate urination eliminating urine at the wrong time or in the wrong place
incontinence inability to control excretory functions (ie. urinary incontinence)
interstitial cystitis inflammation within the wall of the urinary bladder
-lithiasis means presence of stones or calculi
nephrectasis distension (enlargement) of the kidneys
nephritis inflammation of the kidneys
nephrolith kidney stone or renal calculus
nephromalacia abnormal softening of the kidney
nephropathy disease of the kidneys
nephosclerosis abnormal hardening of the kidney
nephosis abnormal condition of the kidney
prerenal and postrenal before and after the kidney; used to describe pathologic conditions
prolapse downward displacement of a body organ
nephrotosis prolapsed kidney
pyelitis inflammation of the renal pelvis
pyelonephritis inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney
renal failure inability of the kidneys to function; may be acute (sudden onset) or chronic (progressive)
acute renal failure (ARF) sudden onset of the inability of the kidneys to function; may be caused by a nephrotoxin (a poison having destructive effects on the kidneys)
chronic renal failure (CRF) longer onset of the inability of the kidneys to function
polyuria elevated urine production
polydipsia excessive thirst or drinking
diuresis the elevated excretion of urine; may be produced by fluid therapy or drug therapy; animals with renal failure may undergo diuresis
diuretics drugs that increase urine production
renal infarction obstruction of blood flow to the kidney(s)
uremia waste products in the blood; seen with many types of kidney disease
ureterectasis distention of the ureter
ureterolith stone in the urethra
urethritis inflammation of the urethra
urethrostenosis stricture (abnormal band of tissue narrowing a passage) of the urethra
urinary retention inability to completely empty the urinary bladder
urinary tract infection (UTI) invasion of microorganism in the urianry system, which results in local cellular injury
urolith / cystolith urinary bladder stone
cystectomy surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder
cystopexy surgical fixation of the urinary bladder to the abdominal wall
cystoplasty surgical repair of the urinary bladder
cystostomy surgical creation of a new opening between the skin and urinary bladder
cystotomy surgical incision into the urinary bladder
dialysis procedure to remove blood waste products when the kidneys are no longer functioning
peritoneal dialysis the removal of blood waste products by fluid exchange through the peritoneal cavity
hemodialysis the removal of blood waste products by filtering blood through a machine
lithotripsy destruction of stone using ultrasonic waves traveling through water
nephectomy surgical removal of a kidney
nephropexy surgical fixation of a kidney to the abdominal wall
ureterectomy surgical removal of the ureter
ureteroplasty surgical repair of the ureter
urethrostomy surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin
perineal urethrostomy surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin between the anus and the scrotum
glomerulus cluster of capillaries that filter blood
Bowman's capsule cup-shaped structure that contains the glomerulus
proximal convoluted tubules hollow tubes located between Bowman's capsule and loops of Henle that are involved in reabsorption
loop of Henle U-shaped turn in the convoluted tubule of the kidney located between the proximal and distal convoluted tubules that is involved in reabsorption; has ascending and descending loop
distal convoluted tubules hollow tubes located between the loops of Henle and the collecting tubules that are involved in secretion
collecting tubules hollow tubes that carry urine from the cortex to the renal pelvis
Created by: mlmertens91



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