Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

A.N. System and drug

How drugs affect the Autonomic System

TermDefinition
Acetylcholine Direct-Acting Cholinergics, seldom used in clinic because it is broken down so rapidly by acteylcholinesteraes.
Carbamylcholine Direct-Acting Cholinergics, This porduct has been used to treat atony of the GI tract and to stimulate uterine contractions in swine.
Bethanechol (Urecholine) Direct-acting Cholinergics, This porduct is used to treat GI and urinary tract atony.
Pilocarpine (Isopto Caprine, Akarpine, Pilocar.) Direct-Acting Cholinergics. This porduct reduces intraocular pressure associated with glaucoma
Metoclopramide (Reglan) Direct-Acting Cholinergics. This porduct is used to control vomiting and to promote gastric tract emptying
Endrophonium (tensilon) Indirect-acting cholinergic agents, This product is used to diagnose myasthenia gravis
Neostigmine (prostigmine, Stiglyn) Indirect-acting cholinergic agents, This product are used to treat urinne retention nd GI atony and are used as an antidote to neuromuscular blocking agents.
Physostigmine (Antilirium, Eserine) Indirect-acting cholinergic agents, This product is similar to neostigmine, used to treat urine retention and GI atony
Organophosphate compounds Indirect-acting cholinergic agents, This product is commonly used as insecticide dips and may result in toxicity if used inappropriatly.
Demecarium (Humorsol) Indirect-acting cholinergic agents, This product is used to preventive management of glaucoma
Pyridostigimine (Mestinon) Indirect-acting cholinergic agents, This product is used for the treatment of myasthenia gravis.
Atropine Cholinergic Blocking Agents (Anticholinergic), has numerous generic and trade name products are available for parenteral or ophthalmic administrastion
Methscopolamine Cholinergic Blocking Agents (Anticholinergic), is an ingredient of Biosol-M, used to control diarrhea.
Glycopyrrolate (Robinul-V) Cholinergic Blocking Agents (Anticholinergic), This product is a quaternary ammonium compound with actions silimilar to atropine. It provides longer duration of action that ptropine and is used primarily as a preansthetic.
Aminopentamide (Centrine) Cholinergic Blocking Agents (Anticholinergic), This product is used to control vomiting and diarrhea in dogs and cats.
Propantheline (Pro-Banthine) Cholinergic Blocking Agents (Anticholinergic), This product is used to treat diarrhea, urinary incontinence, and bradycardia and to reduce colonic peristalsis in horses to allow rectal exam. It is similar to glycopyrrolate, is a quaternary ammonium comp.
Pralidoxime (Protopam, 2-PAM) Cholinergic Blocking Agents (Anticholinergic, This product is a cholinesterase reactivator used to treat organophosphate intoxication.
Epinephrine (Adrenalin) Adrenergic (Sympathomimetic) Agents, This product stimulates all receptors to cause an increase in heart rate/cardiac output, constriction of the blood vessels in the skin, dilation of the blood vessels in muscles/bronchioles, increase metabolic rate.
Norepinephrine (Levophed). Adrenergic (Sympathomimetic) Agents, this product is mostly an alpha stimultor with some beta stimulation. It's primary influence is that of a vaspresor (raise blood pressure)
Isoproterenol (Isuprel) Adrenergic (Sympathomimetic) Agents, this product is a pure beta stimulator, primary use for bronchodilation.
Phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine) Adrenergic (Sympathomimetic) Agents, this product is an alpha stimulator that is used as a nasal vasoconstictor
Dopamine (intropin) Adrenergic (Sympathomimetic) Agents, this product is a precursorof epinephrine and norepinephrine. Action=dose dependent. Used to treat shocl and congestive heart failure and to increase renal perfusion.
Penlypropanolamine (Proin) Adrenergic (Sympathomimetic) Agents, this is used to treat urinary incontinence in dogs
Dobutmine (Dobutrex) Adrenergic (Sympathomimetic) Agents, beta-1 agonist that is used for short term treatment of heart failure.
Albuterol [Proventil] Adrenergic (Sympathomimetic) Agents, these products are beta agonist and their main use is bronchodilation.
Phenoxybenzamine (Dibenyline) Alpha Blocker, this product is a hypotensive (vasodilator) agent.
Aacepromazine Alpha Blocker, this product is a tranquilizer and acts as an alpha blocker and causes vasoldilation
Prazosin (Minipress) Alpha Blocker, this product is a hypotension agent
Yohimbine (Yobine) Alpha Blocker, this product is is used as an antidote for xylazine toxicity
Atipamezole (Antisedan) Alpha Blocker, this product is is a reversal agent for dexmedetomidine
Propranolol (inderal) Beta blocker, this product is used to treat cardiac arrhythimas and hypertrophic cradiomyopathy.
Timolol (Timoptic) Beta blocker, this product is an ophthalmic preparation used to treat glaucoma.
Atenolol (Tenormin) Beta blocker, this product is used in a similar way to propranolol
Careolol (Ocupress) Beta blocker, this product is a human labeled antiglaucoma medication.
Levobunolol (Betagan) Beta blocker, this product is a human labeled antiglaucoma medication.
Metipranolol (OptiPranolol) Beta blocker, this product is a human labeled antiglaucoma medication
Aceprmazine maleate (PromAce) Tranquilizer, proposed that they are dopamine blockers,
Chlorpromazine hydrochoride (Thorazine-human labeled) Tranquilizer, proposed that they are dopamine blockers
Promazine HCI (Saprine-human label) Tranquilizer, proposed that they are dopamine blockers
Prochlorperazine (Compazine-human label) Tranquilizer, proposed that they are dopamine blockers
Diazepm (valium, Diastat) Benzodiazepine Derivatives.
Midazolam (Versed) Benzodiazepine Derivatives.
Alprazolam (Xanar) Benzodiazepine Derivatives.
Rompun Xylazime Hydrochloride, sedative, analgesic,muscle relaxant properties. Antagonized by yohimbine. Combined w/ ketamine can be used for short term field procedures. Used in c-sections in cattle. Dog/cats as a tranquilizer.
AnaSed Xylazime Hydrochloride, sedative, analgesic,muscle relaxant properties. Antagonized by yohimbine. Combined w/ ketamine can be used for short term field procedures. Used in c-sections in cattle. Dog/cats as a tranquilizer.
Gemini Xylazime Hydrochloride, sedative, analgesic,muscle relaxant properties. Antagonized by yohimbine. Combined w/ ketamine can be used for short term field procedures. Used in c-sections in cattle. Dog/cats as a tranquilizer.
Sedazine Xylazime Hydrochloride, sedative, analgesic,muscle relaxant properties. Antagonized by yohimbine. Combined w/ ketamine can be used for short term field procedures. Used in c-sections in cattle. Dog/cats as a tranquilizer.
Cervizine (labeled for deer and elk) Xylazime Hydrochloride, sedative, analgesic,muscle relaxant properties. Antagonized by yohimbine. Combined w/ ketamine can be used for short term field procedures. Used in c-sections in cattle. Dog/cats as a tranquilizer.
Detomidine Similar to xylazine, its an alpha-2 agonist. This product is used as a sedative/analgesic for horses. Some may respond by kicking when they appear to be heavily sedated. Dosage form includes Dormosedan.
Medetomidine Is an alpha-2-adrenergic agonist used as a sedative and analgesic in dogs older than 12 weeks. Dosage form would be Domitor.
Dexmedetomidine Is an alpha-2-adrenergic agonist labeled for use as a sedative and analgesic in dogs and cats. "right-handed" enantiomer of medetomidine. May be combined w/ opioids and ketamine to produce "kitty magic" Dosage forms include dexdomitor.
Romifidine Is an alpha-2-adreenergic agonist labeled for use in horses. Used as a sedative to facilitate handling examination. Dosage forms include sedivet.
Barbiturates(Phenobarbital) Used as an anticonvulsant to prevent epileptic seizures, administered by oral route. Class IV controlled substance.
Barbiturates(Pentobarbital) Given by intravenous injection and provides 1-2 hours of general anesthesia. Primarily used for controlling seizures and as a euthanasia agent. Class II controlled substance.
Barbiturates (Thiobarbiturates) Must be given intravenously to avoid necrosis and sloughing of tissue. Redistriuted into fat stores w/n 15-30 minutes. Careful when administering in thin animals. Can cause periods of apena.
The first step of the pain perception pathway involves the sensation of a noxious stimulus and the subsequent transmission of the painful signal. This process is called? Stimulus transduction
When injury occurs, it's not jst those tissues that are directly damaged that stimulate pain receptors. Nearby cells become sensitized and are easily stimulated to detect pain. The resulting throbbing pain found areas near an injury are because of tissue hyperalgesia
Which opioid receptor is primarily responsible for the profound analgesia that is characteristic of these narcotics? Mu-(weird U)
Which of the opioids is considered the standard to which all other opioids are compared in terms of analgesic effects, which are resulting from its primary activity at the mu receptor? Morphine
T/F Inadvertent exposure to fentanyl, either orally or topically, is considered a medical emergency. True, must be cautious when handling fentanyl
Buprenorphine exhibits agonistis activity at the ___ receptor, and antagonistic activity at the ____receptor. Mu,Kappa
Several opioids such as butorphanol and buprenorphine exhibit a limited effect of analgesia regardless of the does that is administered. This is called.. Ceiling effect
T/F Acepromazine is commonly used phenylthiazine tranquilizer used often as a premedication in preparation for general anesthesia induction. And its ability to reduce the seizure threshold in dogs was recently discounted for use in vet medicine. true
Sedative drugs that are members of the alpha-2 agonists include xylazine and dexmedetomidine. What is the mechanism of action of these drugs at their specific adrenergic receptor? Reduce norepinephrone in the synapse
T/F Another name for a pain receptor is transducer. False; another name for a pain receptor is a nociceptor, tranducer is involved in the noxious stimuli into electricnactivity at the sensory nerve endings.
What is modulation in the pain pathway? The transmission of sensory depolarization wave up the spinal cord.
What happens when the inflammation process is decreased shortly after trauma? Pain can be reduced
Which two of the four known opioid receptors have the most significance in vet med.? Mu and Kappa
Opioids are classified as mixed agonist/antagonists meaning.. The drug affects the option receptor in diff. ways
What is the naturally derived opiate drug that is used primarily for its pain alleviating properties? Morphine
Having a greater potency than morphine means the drug used to reduce pain... Can be used at a lower dose
Fentanyl Has a shorter duration of action than morphine
Fentanyl transdermal patches.. Are dosed according to the surface area of the patch
Fentanyl patches should be applied over the shoulder area of dogs and cats because.. There is less chance the animal ingesting it there
The ceiling effect of buprenorphine means It's max analgesic affect is less than morphines max affect
Analgesia involves the loss of ____ and anesthesia involves the loss of ____. Pain; consciousness
What is not a commonly encountered effect elicited by dissociatives such as ketamine? Highly effective reliever of visceral pain
What drug stimulates the breathing response? Doxapram
This is the drug for managing seizures long term and its relatively inexpensive while having a good half life Phenobarbital
Barbiturates can results in upregulation of the enzyme responsible for the drugs breakdown. What is it known as? Induction
T/F Potassium bromide has a half life of three weeks. True
Ketamine (Ketaset, Vetalar, Ketalar) Tranquilizers are used with Ketamine , to enhance muscle relaxation and deepen anesthesia. Oral, ocular, laryngeal reflexes are maintained. Class III
Tiletamine (Telazol) Dissociative agent, injectable, Telazol is a combo of tiletamine and zolazepam. Analgesic and muscle relaxing effects. Class III
Phencyclidine (Sernylan) No longer available, originally a immobilizing agent
Opium Opioid agnostic, used in the treatment for diarrhea, primarily in calves and foals.
Morphine sulfate (Duramorph) opioid agnostic, used to treat severe pain. Class II , this is the standard opioid .
Meperidine Synthetic narcotic, Mu-receptor 1/8 as potent as morphine, used to relieve acute pain, combined w/ a tranquilizer cld be used as an estimated agent, naloxone is the antagonist.
Oxymorphone Synthetic narcotic, Mi-agonistic, 10 x more potent of an analgesic as morphine. Combined w/ tranquilizers to form neuroleptanalgesia; antagonist is naloxone
Butorphanol tartrate Synthetic, it's opioid agonistic activity is exerted on kappa and sigma receptors while its antagonist activity occurs at the Mu receptor. Class IV, shouldn't be used alone as an analgesic agent.
Fentanyl Synthetic, approx. 100x more analgesic properties than morphine, Class II, available in patches to help control chronic pain.
Hydrocodone bitartrate Opioid agnoist used as an antitussive agent in dogs. Class III
Etorphine Opioid w/ 1000x more analgesic properties than morphine. Restricted to only exotic and zoo animal practice. Antagonist is diprenorphine, class II
Pentazocine Approved for pain relief in horses and dogs, class IV
Diphenoxylate Synthetic opioid agonist, combined w/ atropine for use as an anti diarrheal agent. Class V
Apomorphine
Methadone Synthetic opioid, treatment of colic pain in horses, class II
Codeine Used as an antitussive in dogs, Class II when used alone, class V when used in combo products.
Carfentanil Used to induce wildlife anesthesia, 10,000x more potent to morphine, class II
Buprenorphine Partial Mu-anoints/antagonist, potent analgesic that is used in several small animal species. Good results in cats
Tramadol Mu-receptor, agonist, in habits the receptor of the norepinephrine and serotonin
Naloxone Pure opiod antagonist, high affinity for mu-receptors, no agonist activity
Nalorphine Partial antagonist, may produce untoward analgesic and respiratory depressant effects
Butorphanol Mu-‚éĆantagonistic, primarily as a sedative or analgesic, rarely used as an antagonist.
Diazepam A tranquilizer w/ potent antiseizure properties, administered IV and has 3-4 hour duration of action
Pentobarbital Short acting barbiturate that's effective for controlling seizures, administer IV and has 1-3 hour duration.
Phenobarbital Effective antiseizure drug, available in oral, and injections form, oral is usually to dogs/cats and injection is usually to horses. Class IV
Primidone Metabolized to phenobarbital by the liver, administered orally to dogs/cats, use in cats is controversial. Adverse side effects may include agitation, anxiety, PUPD, dermatitis
Phenytoin sodium Use has declined, may occasionally be used in combo w/ other antiseizure meds.
Bromide Old anticonvulsant, sparked new interest mainly as an adjunct to phenobarbital or primidone.
Clorazepate May be used as an adjunctive w/ other antiseizure agents
Felbamate May be used for complex partial seizures
Gabapentin May be used as an adjunctive treatment of seizures that are difficult to control and for partial complex seizures or pain control.
Levetiracetam (Keppra) May be useful as an adjunctive for refractory canine epilepsy.
Zonisamide Similar to levetriacetam, can be used as an adjunctive for refractory canine epilepsy.
Isoflurane Inhalant anesthetic, colorless liquid w/ pungent odor. Least soluble of the inhalant agents. Very rapid induction and recovery times. Allows a stable heart rhythm and does not decrease cardiac output. Metabolized at a very low rate <0.2%
Sevoflurane Inhalant anesthesic, halogenated ether w/ little odor, good choice for a mask. Very rapid induction and recovery time. Often used in high risk, small-animal patients. Only 3% of sevoflurane is metabolized.
Halothane (Fluothane) Halogenated hydrocarbon, decomposes when exposed to ultraviolet light, so it's paired w/ an antioxidant. It sensitized the heart to the catecholamines, metabolized at 25%
Methoxyflurane Highly soluble in blood and other tissues. Very slow induction and recovery time, most potent, undergoes bio transformation (metabolizes) at 50%
Nitrous Oxide Colorless inorganic gas, gen. anesthesia cannot be w/ just NO ,it's compressed to form a liquid and supplied in blue cylinders, NO is delivered through flowmeter and must ALWAYS be given w/ O2.
Propofol Short acting hypnotic, mechanism of action isn't well understood, could be milky or clear, known as "milk of amnesia" must be refrigerated after opening & discarded after 6 hours, PropoFlo28 / PropoClear contain preservatives so don't need refrigeration.
Guaifenesin Skeletal muscle relaxant, used primarily in equines to induce gen. anesthesia, relatively large amounts are required to induce gen. anesthesia, small increments are given to maintain or extend the effects.
Chloral Hydrate Combo has been used as IV agent to produce anesthesia in large animals. Potential for severe irritation of tissue if administered outside the vein.
Doxapram Activates resp. system by stimulating resp. centers of the medulla. Used in newborns and cardiopulmonary arrest patients. IV or 1-2 drops under the tongue or administered into the umbilical vein of the newborn.
Pentylenetetrazol Generalized stimulant of the CNS has been used to stimulate respiration to hasten recovery from anesthesia
Caffine General CNS stimulant that promotes wakefulness
Amphetamines Potent stimulants of the cerebral cortex
Succinylcholine Muscle relaxant, used as an adjunct to general anesthesia, and to facilitate endotracheal intubation.
Decamethonium Syncurine, Muscle relaxant, used as an adjunct to general anesthesia, and to facilitate endotracheal intubation.
D-tubocurarine chloride Curare, Non depolarizing, Muscle relaxant, used as an adjunct to general anesthesia, and to facilitate endotracheal intubation.
Gallamine Flaxedil, Nondepolarizing, Muscle relaxant, used as an adjunct to general anesthesia, and to facilitate endotracheal intubation.
Pancuronium bromide Pavulon, Nondepolarizing, Muscle relaxant, used as an adjunct to general anesthesia, and to facilitate endotracheal intubation.
Vecuronium bromide. Norcuron, Nondepolarizing, Muscle relaxant, used as an adjunct to general anesthesia, and to facilitate endotracheal intubation.
Atracurium Tracrium, Nondepolarizing, Muscle relaxant, used as an adjunct to general anesthesia, and to facilitate endotracheal intubation.
Diazepam Valium, used for the treatment of fears and phobias, sepearation anxiety, aggression, anxiety-induced stereotypes, urine marking in cats, and appetite stimulation.
Alprazolam Xanax, used for the treatment of fears and phobias, sepearation anxiety, aggression, anxiety-induced stereotypes, urine marking in cats, and appetite stimulation.
Lorazepam Ativan, used for the treatment of fears and phobias, sepearation anxiety, aggression, anxiety-induced stereotypes, urine marking in cats, and appetite stimulation.
Buspirone Used in behavioral pharmacotherapy, possess no muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant, or sedative effect. It's antianxiety effect is thought to be caused by blocking serotonin receptors.
Amitriptyline Elavil, Treatment of sepearation anxiety, obsessive disorders, fearful aggression, hyperactivity, hypervocalization,mans urine marking.
Imipramine Tofranil, Treatment of sepearation anxiety, obsessive disorders, fearful aggression, hyperactivity, hypervocalization,mans urine marking.
Clomipramine Anafranil, Treatment of sepearation anxiety, obsessive disorders, fearful aggression, hyperactivity, hypervocalization,mans urine marking.
Fluoxetine (Prozac, Rconcile)Used for a variety of behavioral syndromes, including obsessive disorders, phobias, aggression, and sepearation anxiety.
Sertraline Zoloft, Used for a variety of behavioral syndromes, including obsessive disorders, phobias, aggression, and sepearation anxiety.
Paroxetine Paxil, Used for a variety of behavioral syndromes, including obsessive disorders, phobias, aggression, and sepearation anxiety.
Fluvoxamine Luvox, Used for a variety of behavioral syndromes, including obsessive disorders, phobias, aggression, and sepearation anxiety.
Selegiline Used in the treatment of old dog dementia, and for dogs Cushing's disease.
Megastrol acetate Megace, Used to treat urine spraying/ marking, intermale aggression, and dominance aggression.
Medroxyprogesterone Deposit-Provera, Used to treat urine spraying/ marking, intermale aggression, and dominance aggression.
Gabapentin Used for anxiety or social problems
Clorazepate Is used for anxiety or social phobias, Class IV
Methylphenidate Ritalin, used for hyperactivity in dogs, class II
Pentobarbital sodium -sleepaway, fatal plus, Euthanasia, IV use, class II
Phenobarbital sodium- beuthanasia d, euthasol Euthanasia, IV use, class III, contains rhodamine B so that's why it's different.
Created by: 1398776536833212