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Integumentary, Circulatory, and Respiratory Systems

epidermis outermost layer of skin, may contain up to five layers
keratinization process in which keratin fills a cell, replacing the internal structures, leading to the cell's death and hardening
stratum corneum the horny, outermost layer of the epidermis that consists of dead, fully keratinized cells
stratum lucidum the clear, second layer of the epidermis that consists of dead, keratinized cells; usually found only in the skin of the nose and footpads
stratum granulosum the granular, third layer of the epidermis that may or may not be present in all areas of the body; cells are in the process of keratinization and are dying
stratum spinosum the fourth, prickle cell layer of the epidermis consisting of one to three layers of living cells that only resume cell division if the upper layer are removed by trauma or disease
stratum basale the final, deepest layer of the epidermis consisting of actively dividing cells formed in a single layer basal layer
keratinocyte cell in the stratum basale which produces keratin
melanocyte cell in the stratum basale which produces melanin; the number of the melanocytes determine the darkness of the skin
basement membrane structure which supports the epidermis and separates it fro the dermis
dermis layer of the skin which provides structure and nutritional support to the epidermis; varies in thickness; consists of collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers and fibroblasts, macrophages, and adipocytes
hypodermis layer of skin under the dermis; thickness varies depending on the areas as well as species and weight; containing blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue but primarily composed of fat
integumentary system consists of skin and all its related structures, including hair , paw pads, claws, hooves, horns, antlers, and skin glands
hair shaft portion of hair that rises above the surface of the skin; composed of the cuticle, cortex, and medulla
hair root portion of hair beneath the surface of the skin, lying in and arising from the hair follicle
hair follicle shaft that is continuous with the surface of the skin and contains the hair root
arrector pili muscles small muscles attached to the hair follicle embedded in the dermis; the muscles contract to create goosebumps that make hair stand up
anagen active growth phase of the hair growth cycle, during which cells at the hair root divide to produce the keratinized cells of the hair shaft
telogen resting phase of the hair growth cycle, hair isn't growing and is retained in the hair follicle for a period of tie before being shed
catagen transitional phase of the hair growth cycle, between anagen and telogen, where growth slows down
wall visible element of the hoof
periople small band of soft, horny, tissue found at the proximal and of the wall; represents the junction between the wall and the skin of the limb
coronet layer of skin where the hoof growth begins
sole concave portion at the bottom of the hoof
frog V-shaped ridge of soft, horny material at the bottom of the hoof; found only in horses
bulb soft tissue covering the heel of the foot just behind the frog
corium living tissue immediately beneath the hoof wall inner layer of the horn
horn core hollow extension of the frontal skull bone that communicates with the sinus cavities
sebaceous glands microscopic infoldings of the epidermis usually associated with hair follicles through a small duct; releases sebum; most common skin gland
sebum oily, waxy substance released when foamy cells from the sebaceous gland burst; contains cholesterol, fatty acids, and waxy chemicals; softens skin, forms a thin film over the stratum corneum to retain moisture, and kills bacteria via fatty acids and salts
apocrine sweat glands infoldings of the skin associated with hair follicles through an opening above the sebaceous gland duct; produces a protein rich in fluid that mixes with sebum to form the protective film over your stratum corneum; second most common skin gland
mammary glands form of apocrine sweat gland modified to produce milk
eccrine sweat glands located between the junction of the dermis and hypodermis; vary in amount between species; helps regulate temperature by releasing water and retaining salt; third type of skin gland
anal sacs combinations of modified sebaceous and apocrine glands that lie on each side of the anus; produce foul-smelling secretions used in territorial marking by dogs and cats; may become impacted - especially in dogs - and require surgery
Created by: curiouschelsea



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