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Medical Terminology

Week 4 - Digestive System

oral cavity contains the lips and cheeks, hard and soft palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth and periodontium
or/o and stomat/o meaning mouth
granth/o meaning jaw
prognathia an animal has an elongated mandible, or a mandible that is overshot (aka: sow mouth)
brachygnathia an animal has a shortened mandible, or a mandible that is undershot (aka: parrot mouth)
labia medical term for lips (singular: labium)
cheil/o and/ labi/o meaning lips
bucco/o meaning cheek
buccal pertaining to or directed toward the cheeck
palate forms the roof of the mouth; consists of hard and soft palate
hard palate forms the bony rostral portion of the palate that is covered with specialized mucous membrane (rugae)
rugae specialized mucous membrane found in the hard palate, as well as stomach
rug/o meaning wrinkle or fold
soft palate forms the flexible caudal portion of the palate; involved in closing off the nasal passage during swallowing so that food does not move into the nostrils
palat/o meaning palate
tongue movable muscular organ in the oral cavity used for tasting and processing food, grooming and articulating sound
papillae elevations located dorsum of the tongue; highly vascular
filiform papillae thread-like (no taste buds located here)
fungiform papillae mushroom-like (taste buds located here)
vallate papillae cup-shaped (taste buds located here)
frenulum a band of connective tissue that connects the tongue to the ventral surface of the oral cavity
gloss/o and lingu/o meaning tongue
lingual cheek the cheek side that is adjacent to the tongue
dent/o, dent/i, odont/o meaning teeth
dentition refers to the teeth as a whole arranged in maxillary and mandibular arcades
deciduous dentition the primary dentition; the temporary set of teeth that erupt in young animals and are replaced at or near maturity
permanent dentition the set of teeth designed to last the lifetime of an animal
retained deciduous tooth the period in which both deciduous and permanent teeth are present in the mixed dentition; deciduous tooth may need to be extracted
incisor (I) front tooth used for cutting
canine (C) long, pointed, bone-like tooth located between the incisors and premolars (aka: fang or cuspid - means having a tapering projection)
premolar (P) cheek tooth found between the canine teeth and molars (aka: bicuspids b/c they have two points)
molar (M) most caudally located permanent cheek tooth used for grinding
dental formula represents the type of tooth and the number of each tooth type found in that species
triadan system numbering system in which each tooth has a three digit number (first digit represents quadrant, next two digits are individual tooth number)
enamel the hard, white substance covering the dentin of the crown of the tooth
cementum the bone-like connective tissue that covers the root of the tooth
dentin the connective tissue surrounding the tooth pulp
tooth pulp consists of nerves, blood vessels and loose connective tissue
apical foramen the hole at the tip of the root where nerves and blood vessels enter the tooth
periodontia the structures that support the teeth
alveoli sockets or saclike dilations where the teeth are situated (singular: alveolus)
alveolar bone the thin layer of compact bone that forms the tooth socket; surrounds the roots of the teeth
periodontal ligament the fibrous structure that holds the tooth in the alveolus; contains collagen fibers that are anchored to the cementum of the tooth and to the alveolar bone
gingiva the mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth and forms the mouth lining (aka: gums)
gingiv/o means gums
gingival sulcus the space that surrounds the tooth; located between the tooth and the gingival margin
salivary glands a group of cells located in the oral cavity that secrete a clear substance containing digestive enzymes (saliva)
saliva moistens food, begins the digestive process by aiding in bolus formation and some digestive enzyme activity and cleanses the mouth
mandibular salivary glands found near the lower jaw
sublingual salivary glands found under the tongue
zygomatic salivary glands founds medical to the zygomatic arch
parotid salivary glands found near the ear
sialaden/o and sial/o means saliva
cheek teeth premolars and molars
needle teeth deciduous canines and third incisor of pigs
wolf teeth rudimentary premolar 1 in horses
milk teeth first set of teeth
tusks permanent canine teeth of pigs
carnassial tooth large, sheering cheek tooth; upper P4 and lower M1 in dogs; upper PM3 and lower M1 in cats
fighting teeth set of six teeth in llamas that include upper vestigial incisor sand upper and lower canines on each side
selenodont animals with teeth that have crescents on their grinding surfaces (ie. ruminants)
lophodont animals with teeth that have ridged occlusal surfaces (ie. equine)
bunodont animals with teeth that have worn, rounded surfaces (ie. swine)
hypsodont animals with continuously erupting teeth (ie. cheek teeth of ruminants)
pleurodont animals with teeth attached by one side on the inner jaw surface (ie. lizards)
brachydont animals with permanently rooted teeth (ie. carnivores)
endodontics branch of dentistry that involves treatment of diseases that affect the tooth pulp
exodontics branch of dentistry that involves extraction of teeth and related procedures
oral surgery branch of surgery that involves surgical correction of the jaw, gums and inside of the mouth
orthodontics branch of dentistry that involves the guidance and correction of malocclusion
periodontics branch of dentistry that studies and treats the diseases of tooth-supporting structures
mastication chewing to make food easier to swallow; can increase surface area of food particles or ingesta
ingesta the material taken in orally; increase surface area increases the contact between digestive enzymes and the food and may speed up the breakdown of food
hypersalivation excessive production of saliva (aka: ptyalism and hypersialosis)
deglutition the process of swallowing
phag/o means eating or ingestion; food passes from the mouth to the pharynx to the esophagus
pharynx the cavity in the caudal oral cavity that joins the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems (aka: throat)
pharyng/o means pharynx
esophagus a collapsible, muscular tube that leads from the oral cavity to the stomach; located dorsal to the trachea
esophag/o means esophagus
sphincter a ring-like muscle that constricts an opening (where esophagus enters the stomach)
abdomen the cavity located between the diaphragm and the pelvis
abdomin/o and celi/o meaning abdomen (lepar/o - abdomen and flank)
peritoneum the membrane lining that covers the abdominal and pelvic cavities and some of the organs in that area
parietal peritoneum the layer of the peritoneum that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities
visceral peritoneum the layer of the peritoneum that covers the abdominal that covers the abdominal organs
lesser omentum a fold of peritoneum that connects the stomach to other visceral organs
greater omentum a fold of peritoneum that connects the stomach to the dorsal abdominal wall
gastr/o means stomach
monogastric (non-ruminants) animals that have one true (or glandular) stomach
glandular stomach produces secretions for digestion
ruminants have one true (or glandular stomach) but they also have three forestomachs (rumen, reticulum and omasum); forestomachs are actual outpouchings of the esophagous
cardia entrance area located nearest the esophagus
fundus the base of an organ, which the cranial rounded part
body main portion of an organ, which is the rounded base or bottom (aka: corpus)
antrum caudal part, which is the constricted part of the stomach that joins the pylorus
pylor/o means the narrow passage between the stomach and duodenum
pyloric sphincter the muscle ring that controls the flow of material from the stomach to the duodenum of the small intestine
rugae folds present in the mucosa of the stomach; contains glands that produce gastric juices that aid in digestion and the mucus forms a protective coating for the stomach lining
ruminants animals that can regurgitate and remasticate their food; stomach is adapted for fermentation of ingested food by bacterial and protozoam microorganisms.
intestinal flora normal microorganisms residing in the GI tract; produce enzymes that can digest plant cells through fermentation
fermentation aided by regurgitation (return of undigested material from the rumen to the mouth) and remastication (chewing); regurgitation and remastication provide finely chopped material with a greater surface area to the stomach
cud regurgitated food particles, fiber, rumen fluid and rumen microorganisms
rumen largest compartment of the ruminant stomach that serves as fermentation vat (aka: paunch); divided into a ventral and dorsal sac; largest compartment in adults
reticulum most cranial compartment of the ruminant stomach (aka: honeycomb); lined with a mucous membrane that contains numerous intersecting ridges
omasum third compartment of the ruminant stomach; has short, blunt papillae that grind food before it enters the abomasum; omasal contractions also squeeze fluid out of the food bolus
abomasum fourth component of the ruminant stomach (aka: true stomach); the glandular portion that secretes digestive enzymes; largest component in young animals
mesentery a fold of the peritoneum that attaches the small intestine to the dorsal abdominal wall
small intestine where digestion of food and absorption takes place for animals not needing extensive fermentation of their ingested food
enter/o means small intestine
gastroenterology the study of the stomach and small intestine
duodenum proximal or first portion of the small intestine; the segment of the small intestine located nearest the mouth (duoden/i and duoden/o mean duodenum)
jejunum middle portion of the small intestine (jejun/o means jejunum)
ileum distal or last portion of the small intestine (aka: aboral portion); the segment of the small intestine located furthest from the mouth (ile/o means ileum)
chyle a milky fluid that is formed after food is digested in the small intestine; chyle is absorbed through the intestinal wall and travels via the thoracic duct where it is passed into veins
large intestine large bowel that extends from the ileum to the anus; consists of cecum, colon, rectum and anus; cecum and colon provide fermentation in non-ruminant herbivores (ie. rabbits and horses)
cecum a pouch in which food enters from the ileum; development depends on species (cec/o means cecum)
colon continues from the cecum to its termination at the rectum; consists of ascending, transverse and descending portions (arrangement depends on species); (col/o means colon)
haustra sacculations of the cecum and colon of pigs and horses; act as buckets and prolong retention of material so the microbes have more time for digestion
teniae longitudinal smooth muscle bands that form the haustra
rectum the caudal portion of the large intestine (rect/o means rectum)
anus the caudal opening of the GI tract; controlled by two anal sphincter muscles that tighten and relax to allow or control defecation (an/o means anus)
anorectal pertaining to the anus and rectum (proct/o refers to anus and rectum collectively)
anal canal a short terminal portion of the GI tract; contains anal sacs - pouches that are lined with microscopic anal glands that secrete a found-smelling fluid
liver located caudal to the diaphragm (hepat/o means liver); 1. Removes excess glucose from the bloodstream and stores it as glycogen 2. Destroys old WBCs and removes toxins from blood 3. Produces blood proteins and stores iron and vitamins A, B12 and D
hypoglycemia a condition that occurs when blood sugar is low; when this occurs, liver converts glycogen back into glucose and releases it
hepatocytes liver cells
sinusoids channels located in the liver
parenchyma functional elements of a tissue or organ; made up of hepatocytes
bile produced by the liver; travels down the hepatic duct to the cystic duct, which leads to the gallbladder; bile allows for fat digestion
emulsification fat digestion
bilirubin a pigment production from the destruction of hemoglobin that is released by the liver in bile
gallbladder a sac embedded int he liver that stores bile for later use; when bile is needed, liver contracts and forces bite out of cystic duct into the common bile duct (not found in rats or horses)
common bile duct carries bile into the duodenum
cyst/o means cyst, sac of fluid or urinary bladder
chol/e means bile or gall
doch/o means receptacle
cholecystic means pertaining to the gallbladder
choledochus means common bile duct
pancreas an elongated gland located near the cranial portion of the duodenum; main pancreatic ducts enter the duodenum close to the common bile duct; pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions
pancreat/o means pancreas
exocrine function involved in the production of pancreatic juices (which are filled with digestive enzymes)
trypsin an enzyme that digests protein
lipase an enzyme that digests fat
amylase an enzyme that digests starch
digestion the process of breaking down foods into nutrients that the body can use
enzymes substances that chemically change another substance; digestive enzymes are responsible for the chemical changes that break foods into smaller forms for the body to use
metabolism the process involved in the body's use of nutrients
anabolism the building of body cells and substances
catabolism the breaking down of body cells and substances
absorption the process of taking digested nutrients into the circulatory system
nutrient a substance that is necessary for normal functioning of the body; occurs mainly in the small intestine
villi tiny hair-like projections int he small intestine (singular: villus; vill/i means tuft of hair)
crypts blind sacs in the small intestine; an intestinal crypt is a valley of the intestinal mucous membrane lining the small intestine
prehension grasping of food; involves collecting food in the oral cavity
ingesta the material that is taken in mouth cavity orally
mastication breaks food into smaller pieces and mixes the ingesta with saliva (chewing)
deglutition moves chewed ingesta into the pharynx and into the esophagus; epiglottis closes of the entrance into the trachea and allows food to move into the esophagus
peristalsis series of wave-like contractions of smooth muscles; food moves down the esophagus by gravity and peristalsis
hydrochloric acid and enzymes: protease, pepsin and lipase convert food in the stomach to chyme
chyme the semi-fluid mass of partly digested food that passes from the stomach
segmentation way in which food passes through the small intestine along with peristaltic action
assimilation absorption of digested food in the small intestine
defecation emptying of the bowel; feces are formed after excess water is absorbed by large intestine
ballottement diagnostic technique of hitting or tapping the wall of a fluid-filled structure to bounce a solid structure against a wall; used for determination of abdominal contents
barium contrast material used for radiographic studies; barium sulfate is given orally or rectally to evaluate the GI tract for movement
enema introduction of fluid into the rectum
biopsy removal of a tissue to examine
incisional biopsy part of the tissue is removed and examined
excisional biopsy entire tissue is removed and examined
blood tests determination of blood parameters used to detect some diseases of the GI tract
preprandial blood sample taken before eating
postprandial blood sample taken after eating
colonoscopy endoscopic visual examination of the inner surface of the colon; endoscope is passed from the rectum through the colon
endoscope a tube-like instrument with lights and refracting mirrors that is used to examine the body or organs internally
esophagoscopy endoscopic visual examination of the esophagus; scope is passed from the oral cavity through the esophagus
fecal examinations used to detect parasitic diseases of animals; specialized tests can identify bacteria, isolate viruses or demonstrate abnormal substances present in the stool
hemoccult test for hidden blood in the stool
radiography imaging of internal structures is created by teh exposure of sensitized film to x-rays; x-rays of GI tract demonstration FBs, torsions, organ distension or enlargement, and masses
ultrasound imaging of internal body structures by recording echoes of sound waves
achalsia inability to relax the smooth muscle of the GI tract
adontia absence of teeth
aerophagia swallowing of air
anal sacculitis inflammation of the anal sacs
inspissation the process of rendering dry or thick by evaporation; used to describe the anal sac fluid in animals with anal sacculitis
anorexia lack or loss of appetite
ascariasis parasitic infestation with roundworms of the genus Ascaris
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
atresia occlusion or absence of normal body opening or tubular organ
bloat accumulation of gas in the digestive tract; monogastric animals: bloat is accumulation of gas in stomach; ruminants: accumulation of gas in the rumen, abomasum or cecum
ruminal tympany gas accumulation in the rumen of ruminants
borborygmus gas movement in the GI tract that produces a rumbling noise
bruxism involuntary grinding of the teeth
cachexia general ill health and malnutrition
cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder
cirrhosis degenerative disease that disturbs the structure and function of the liver
colic several abdominal pain
colitis inflammation of the colon
constipation condition of prolonged GI transit time, make the stools hard, dry and difficult to pass
coprophagia ingestion of fecal material (copr/o means coprophagia)
cribbing vice of equine in which an object is grasped between the teeth, pressure is applied and air is inhaled
dehydration condition of excessive loss of body water or fluid
dental calculus abnormal mineralized deposit that forms on teeth (aka: tartar);
dental caries decay and de-calcification of teeth, producing a hole int he tooth
diarrhea abnormal frequency and liquidity of fecal material
displaced abomasum disease of ruminants in which the fourth stomach compartment becomes trapped under the rumen (aka: DA); can be defined by L or R depending on location (ie. LDA or RDA)
diverticulum a pouch occurring on the wall of a tubular organ (diverticula: pouches occurring on the wall of a tubular organ)
diverticulitis inflammation of a pouch or pouches occurring in the wall of a tubular organ
dyschezia difficulty defecating
dysentery number of disorders marked by inflammation of the intestine, abdominal pain and diarrhea
dysphagia difficulty swallowing or eating
emaciation marked wasting or excessive leanness
emesis forcible expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth (aka: vomiting)
enteritis inflammation of the small intestine
enterocolitis inflammation of the small and large intestine
epulis benign tumor arising from periodontal mucous membranes
eructation belching or raising gas orally from the stomach
esophageal reflux return of the stomach contents into the esophagus; called GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)
eviscerate remove or expose internal organs
exocrine pancreatic insufficiency metabolic disease in which the pancreas does not secrete adequate amounts of digestive enzymes and is associated with weight loss, fatty stools and borborygmus (abbr: EPI)
fecalith stonlike fecal mass (aka: coprolith)
flatulence excessive gas formation in the GI tract
gastric dilation condition usually seen in deep-chested canines in which stomach fills with air and expands; dilation is stretching far beyond normal
gastric dilation volvulus condition usually seen in deep-chested canines in which stomach fills with air, expands and twists on itself (GDV)
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
gastroenteritis inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
gingival hyperplasia overgrowth of gingiva characterized by girm, non-painful swellings associated with gingiva
gingivitis inflammation of the gums
glossitis inflammation of the tongue
hematemesis vomiting blood
hematochezia passage of bloody stools
hemoperitoneum blood in the peritoneum
hepatitis inflammation of the liver
hepatoma tumor of the liver
hepatomegaly abnormal enlargement of the liver
hiatal hernia protrusion of part of the stomach through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm
hydrops abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissues or a body cavity (aka: dropsy)
hyperglycemia elevated blood sugar levels
hypoglycemia lower-than-normal sugar levels
ileitis inflammation of the ileum
ileus stoppage of intestinal peristalsis
impaction obstruction of an area, usually when feed is too dry
incontinence inability to control (ie. fecal incontinence)
inappetence lack of desire to eat
inguinal hernia protrusion of bowel through the inguinal canal; protrusion seen in the groin
intussusception telescoping of one part of the intestine into an adjacent part
jaundice yellow discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by elevated bilirubin levels (called "icterus" in veterinary medicine)
lethargy condition of drowsiness or indifference
malabsorption impaired uptake of nutrients from the intestine
malocclusion abnormal contact between teeth
megacolon abnormally large colon
megaesophagus abnormally large esophagus
melena black stools containing digested blood; suggests a bleeding problem in the upper GI tract
nausea stomach upset or sensation of urge to vomit
obstruction complete stoppage or impairment of passage
oronasal fistula abnormal opening between the nasal cavity and the oral cavity; may be congenital, traumatic or associated with dental disease
palatoschisis congenital fissure of the roof of the mouth that may involve the upper lip, hard palate and soft palate (aka: cleft palate)
perforating ulcer erosion through the entire thickness of an surface
periapical abcess inflammation of tissues and collection of pus surrounding the apical portion of a tooth due to pulpal disease
periodontitis inflammation of the tissue surrounding and supporting the teeth (aka: periodontal disease)
pica eating and licking abnormal substances or a depraved appetite
plaque small, differentiated area on a body surface; GI system: mixed colony of bacteria, WBCs and salivary products that adhere to the tooth enamel
polydipsia excessive thirst or drinking
polyp small growth on a mucous membrane
polyphagia excessive eating or swallowing
prolapse protrusion of viscera (ie. rectal prolapse)
quidding condition in which food is taken into the mouth and chewed but falls from the mouth
regurgitation return of swallowed food into the oral cavity; a passive event compared with the force involved in vomiting
salivary mucocele collection of saliva that has leaked from a damaged salivary gland or duct and is surrounded by granulation tissue
scours diarrhea in livestock
shunt to bypass or divert
portosystemic shunt blood vessels bypass the liver and the blood is not detoxified properly
stenosis narrowing of an opening
stomatitis inflammation of the mouth
tenesmus painful, ineffective defecation
torsion axial twist; twist around the axis of gut
trichobezoar hairball (trich/o means hair)
ulcer erosion of tissue
volvulus twisting on itself (end-to-end); twist around long axis of mesentary
abdominocentesis surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen
abomasopexy surgical fixation of the abomasum of ruminants to the abdominal wall
anastomosis surgical connection between two tubular or hollow structures
antidiarrheal substance that prevents frequency and extremely liquid stool
cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gallbladder
colectomy surgical removal of the colon
colostomy surgical production of an artificial opening between the color and the body surface
colotomy surgical excision into the colon
crown restoration of teeth using materials that are cemented into place; used to cap or completely cover a tooth
drench to give medication in liquid form by mouth and forcing the animal to drink
emetic producing vomit
antiemetic a medication that prevents vomiting
enterostomy surgical production of an artificial opening between the small intestine and the abdominal wall
esophagoplasty surgical repair of the esophagus
extraction removal (used to describe surgical removal of a tooth)
fistula abnormal passage from an internal organ to the body surface or between two internal organs
rumenostomy a ruminant that has an artificial opening created between the rumen and the body surface has a rumen fistula
perianal fistula an abnormal passage around the caudal opening of the GI tract
float instrument used to file or rasp an equine's premolar or molar teeth; describes the process of filing equine teeth
gastrectomy surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
gastroduodenostomy removal of part of the stomach and duodenum and making a connection between them
gastropexy surgical fixation of the stomach to the abdominal wall
gastrostomy surgical production of an artificial opening between the stomach and abdominal wall
effluent discharge and an effluent flow from the stoma created by a -stomy surgery
gastrotomy surgical incision into the stomach
gavage forced feeding or irrigation through a tube passed into the stomach
gingivectomy surgical removal of the gum tissue
hepatotomy surgical incision into the liver
illectomy surgical removal of the ileum
ileostomy surgical production of an artificial opening between the ileum and abdominal wall
laparotomy surgical incision into the abdomen (lapar/o means abdomen or flank)
nasogastric intubation placement of a tube through the nose into the stomach
orogastric intubation passage of a tube from the mouth to the stomach (aka: stomach tube)
palatoplasty surgical repair of a cleft palate
trocarization insertion of a pointed instrument (trocar) into a body cavity or an organ; usually performed for acute cases of bloat to relieve pressure
paracentesis when trocarization is performed to treat bloat
Created by: mlmertens91



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