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Medical Terminology

Week 3 - Muscles terms

TermDefinition
ambulation a type of movement: walking, running or otherwise moving from one place to anotehr
skeletal muscle striated and voluntary; long, cylindrical, multinucleated cells with dark and light bands to create a strited or striped look; attach bones to the body and make motion possible
smooth muscle non-striated, involuntary, visceral; spindle-shaped without stripes or striations; produce slow contractions to allow unconscious functioning of internal organs
cardiac muscle striated, involuntary; elongated branched cells that lie parallel to each other and have dark and light bands; involuntary contraction of heart muscle
muscle fibers long, slender cells that make up muscles
my/o combining word for muscle
fibr/o or fibros/o combining word for fibrous tissue
fascia (fasci/o, fasc/i) a sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers supports and separates muscles
tendon (tend/o, tendin/o, ten/o) a narrow band of connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone (ie. "linea alba")
linea alba a fibrous band of connective tissue on the ventral abdominal wall that is the median attachment of the abdominal muscles
aponeurosis (aponeur/o, pl: aponeuroses) a fibrous sheet that provides attachment to muscular fibers and is a means of origin or insertion of a flat muscle
kinesiology (kinesi/o) the study of movement
antagonistic muscles muscles that work against or opposite of one another
synergistic muscles muscles that contract at the same time as another muscle to help movement or support movement
contraction means tightening (muscle becomes shorter and thicker)
relaxation means lessening of tension (muscle returns to regular shape)
neuromuscular junction the point at which nerve endings come into contact with muscle cells (muscles are signaled to contract or relax by the nerve impulses)
tonus (ton/o) muscle tone; balance muscle tension
muscle origin the place where a muscle begins or originates; is the more fixed attachment or end of the muscle closest to the midline
muscle insertion the place where a muscle ends or inserts; is more movable end or portion of the muscle farthest from the midline
range of motion (ROM) describes types of muscle movements
abductor muscle muscle that moves a part away from the midline
adductor muscle muscle that moves a part toward the midline
flexor muscle muscle that bends a limb at its joint or decreases the joint angle
extensor muscle muscle that straightens a limb or increases the joint angle
levator muscle muscle that raises or elevates a part
depressor muscle muscle that lowers or depresses a part
rotator muscle muscle that turns a body part on its axis
supinator muscle muscle that rotates the palmar or plantar surface upward
pronator muscle muscle that rotates the palmar or plantar surface downard
pectoral muscles located on the chest
epaxial muscles located above the pelvic axis
intercostal muscles located between the ribs
infraspinatus muscles located beneath the spine of the scapula
inferior muscle muscle that is below or deep
medius muscle middle muscle
superior muscle muscle that is above
externus muscle outer muscle
internus muscle inner muscle
orbicularis muscle muscles surrounding another structure
rectus muscle fibers straight; align with the vertical axis of the body
oblique muscle fibers slanted; slant outward away from the midline
transverse muscle fibers crosswise; form crosswise to the midline
sphincter tight band; ring-like and constrict the opening of a passageway
biceps muscles that generally have two divisions (heads)
triceps muscles that generally have three divisions
quadriceps muscles that generally have four divisions
axygous muscles that are not paired or divided
minimus muscles muscles that are small
maximus muscles muscles that are large
latissimus muscles that are broad
longissimus or gracilis muscles that are narrow
deltoid muscles muscles that look like the Greek letter delta (Δ)
quadratus muscles muscles that are square or four-sided
rhomboideus muscles muscles that are diamond-shaped
scaleus muscles muscles that are unequally three-sided
teres muscles muscles that are cylindrical
sartorious muscle this muscle flexes and adducts the leg of a human to that position assumed by a tailor sitting cross-legged at work
gemellus muscle a twinned muscle
gastrocnemius muscle the leg muscle that resembles the shape of the stomach
electromyography (EMG) process of recording the electrical activity of the muscle cells near the recording electrodes
electromyogram the record of the strength of muscle contraction caused by electrical stimulation
adhesion band of fibers that hold structures together in an abnormal fashion
ataxia lack of voluntary control of muscle movement; "wobbliness"
dystrophy defective growth
fasciitis inflammation of the sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports and separates muscles
fibroma (fibroid) tumor composed of fully developed connective tissue
hernia protrusion of a body part through tissues that it would normally contain
laxity looseness
leiomyositis inflammation of smooth tissue
myasthenia muscle weakness
myoclonus spasm of muscle
myopathy abnormal condition or disease of muscle
myositis inflammation of voluntary muscles
myotonia delayed relaxation of muscle after contraction
tendinitis inflammation of the band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
tetany muscle spams or twitching
myectomy surgical removal of muscle or part of a muscle
myoplasty surgical repair of muscle
myotomy surgical incision into a muscle
tenectomy surgical removal of a part of a tendon
tenotomy surgical division of a tendon
Created by: mlmertens91