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Medical Terminology

Week 3 - Skeletal terms

TermDefinition
corticol bone (aka: compact bone) hard, dense, strong bone that forms the outer layer of bone
cancellous bone (aka: spongy bone) lighter, less strong bone that is found in the ends and inner portions of long bones
epiphysis wide end of a long bone, which is covered with articular cartilage and is composed of cancellous bone
diaphysis shaft of a long bone that is composed mainly of compact bone
physis (aka: growth plate or epiphyseal cartilage) cartilage segment of long bone that involves growth of the bone
metaphysis wider part of the long bone shaft located adjacent to the physis (in adult animals it is considered part of the physis)
periosteum tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outer covering of bone
endosteum tough, fibrous tissue that forms the lining of the medullary cavity
long bones bones consisting of shaft, two ends and a marrow cavity (ie. femur)
short bones cube-shaped bones with no marrow cavity (ie. carpal bones)
flat bones thin, flat bones (ie. pelvis)
pneumatic bones sinus-containing bones (ie. frontal bone)
irregular bones unpaired bones (ie. vertebrae)
sesamoid bones small bones embedded in a tendon (ie. patella); the only exception is the distal sesamoid of the horse
ossification the formation of bone from fibrous tissue that continues until maturity (varies in species)
osteoblasts immature bone cells that produce bony tissue
osteoclasts phagocytic cells that eat away bony tissue from the medullary cavity of bone
hematopoietic the formation of RBCs by red bone marrow
medullar cavity inner space of bone that contains yellow bone marrow (replaces RBM in adult animals); YBM is composed maintly of fat cells and serves as fat storage
cartilage a form of elastic tissue that is more elastic than bone; it is useful in more flexible portions of the skeleton
articular cartilage a specific type of cartilage that covers the joint surfaces of bones
meniscus the curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints (ie. canine stifle) that cushions forces applied to the joint
chondr/o combining form for cartilage
-malacia abnormal softening of bone
-Sclerosis abnormal hardening of bone
joints/articulations (arthr/o) connections between bones
synarthroses classification of bone that allows for no movement; usually united by fibrous tissue (ie: suture)
suture - jagged line where bones joint and form a non-movable joint; typically found in the skull
fontanelle a soft spot remaining at the junction of sutures that usually closes after birth
amphiarthroses classification of bone that allows for slight movement (ie. symphysis)
symphysis (aka: cartilaginous joint) a joint where two bones join and are held firmly together so that they function as one bone
mandibular symphysis when the mandible halves fuse at a symphysis that forms one bone
pubic symphysis when the halves of the pelvis fuse at a symphysis
diarthroses classification of bone that allows for free movement (ie. synovial joints)
synovial joints further classified as ball-and-socket joints, arthrodial/condyloid joints, trochoid or pivot joints, ginglymus or hinge joints and gliding joints
ball-and-socket joints allow for a wide range of motion in many directions (ie. hip and shoulder joints)
arthrodial / condyloid joints joints with oval projections that fit into a socket (ie. carpal joints)
trochoid joints pulley-shaped joints (ie. connection between the atlas to the axis)
hinge joints allow motion in one plane or direction (ie. canine stifle or elbow joints)
gliding joints move or glide over each other (ie. radioulnar joint or articulating process between successive vertebrae)
saddle joint an additional joint found in primates; located in the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb (allows for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and circumduction of the thumb)
ligament a band of fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another bone
tendon (ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o) a band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
bursa (burs/o) a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas of friction (ie. bursa located in shoulder where tendon passes over bone); plural: bursae
synovial membrane (synovi/o) secretes synovial fluid that acts as a lubricant to make joint movement smooth; found in both bursae and synovial joints
axial skeleton the framework of the bone that includes the skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bones, vertebral column, ribs and sternum
appendicular skeleton the framework of the body that consists of the extremities, shoulder and pelvic girdle
cranium (crani/o) the portion of the skull that encloses the brain
frontal bone cranium bone that forms the roof of the cranial cavity of "front" or cranial portion of the skull (in some species - the horn or cornual process arises from this bone)
parietal bone paired cranium bones that form the roof of teh caudal cranial cavity
occipital bone cranium bone that forms the caudal aspect of the cranial cavity where the foramen magnum (large opening for the spinal cord tissue) is located
temporal bone paired bones that form the sides and base of the cranium
sphenoid bone paired bones that form part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the bony eye socket
ethmoid bone forms the rostral part of the cranial cavity
incisive bone forms the rostral part of the hard palate and lower edge of nares
pterygoid bone forms the lateral wall of the nasopharynx
sinuses air or fluid-filled spaces in the skull
brachycephalic dogs have short, wide heads (ie. pugs)
dolichocephalic dogs have narrow, long heads (ie. greyhounds)
mesocephalic (aka: mesaticephalic) dogs have average width to their heads (ie. labs)
zygomatic projections from the temporal and frontal bones to form the cheekbone
maxilla forms the upper jaw
mandible forms the lower jaw
palatine forms part of the hard palate
lacrimal forms the medial part of the orbit
incisive forms the rostral part of the hard palate and lower edge of nares
nasal forms the bridge of the nose
vomer forms the base of the nasal septum
nasal septum the cartilaginous structure that divides the two nasal cavities
hyoid bone suspended between the mandible and the laryngopharynx
vertebral column (aka: spinal column or backbone) supports the head and body and protects the spinal cord; consists of vertebra
vertebra (spondyl/o and vertebr/o) (singular) individual bones that reside in the vertebral column
vertebrae more than one vertebra bone; divided into body, arch and lamina
body the solid portion ventral to the spinal cord
arch the dorsal part of the vertebra that surrounds the spinal cord
lamina the left or right dorsal half of the arch
processes projections from the vertebrae
spinous processes a single projection from the dorsal part of the vertebral arch
transverse processes project laterally from the right and left sides of the vertebral arch
articular processes paired cranial and caudal projections located on the dorsum of the vertebral arch
foramen means opening
vertebral foramen the opening of the middle of the vertebra through which the spinal cord passes
intervertebral discs cartilaginous discs that separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other
altas (aka: C1) cervical vertebra one
axis (aka: C2) cervical vertebra two
ribs (cost/o) paired bones that attach to thoracic vertebrae; ribs are also known as costals
sternum breastbone; forms the midline ventral portion of the rib cage; divided into 3 parts: manubrium, body and xiphoid process
manubrium the cranial portion of the sternum
body the middle portion of the sternum
xiphoid process the caudal portion of the sternum
thoracic cavity (aka: rib cage) protects the heart and lungs; made up of ribs, sternum and thoracic vertebrae
scapula (shoulder blade) a large triangular bone on the side of the thorax
clavicle (collar bone) a slender bone that connects the sternum to the scapula
vestigial or rudimentary clavicle only present in some animal species (not swine, ruminant or equine)
humerus (brachium) the long bone of the proximal front limb
antebrachium the two bones of the forearm or distal front limb: radius and ulna
radius the cranial bone of the front limb (smaller)
ulna the caudal bone of the front limb (larger)
olecranon proximal projection on the ulna that forms the point of the elbow (some species have a fused radius and ulna)
carpal bones irregularly shaped bones in the area known as the wrist in humans
metacarpals bones found distal to the carpus (numbered medial to lateral)
splint bones in horses, metacarpals/tarsals II and IV do not articulate with the phalanges are commonly called splint bones
interosseous ligament attaches splint bones to the large third metacarpal/tarsal bone
cannon bone the large third metacarpal/tarsal bone
phalanges the bones of the digits (numbered proximal to distal)
phalanx one bone of the digit
digits bones analogous to the human finger and vary in number in animals
dewclaw digit I of dogs/cats
ungulates animals with hooves, digits are number in same fashion
fetlock joint the joint between metacarpal/tarsal III and the digit
pastern joint joint between P1 and P2
coffin joint joint between P2 and P3
long pastern bone P1 phalangeal bone
short pastern bone P2 phalangeal bone
coffin bone P3 phalangeal bone
claw (onych/o) Phalanx 3 in non-hooved animals
declaw (onychectomy) surgical procedure to remove the claws in cats
sesamoid bones small nodular bones embedded in a tendon or joint capsule; multiple sesamoid bones in animals
navicular bone common name for sesamoid bone in horses; located inside the hoof on the palmar or plantar surface of P3
pelvis (hip) consists of 3 pairs of bones: ilium, ischium and pubis
ilium the largest pair of bones that is blade-shaped; articulates with the sacrum to form the "sacroiliac joint"
ischium the caudal pair of bones
pubis the ventral pair of bones that are fused on midline by a cartilaginous joint called the "pubic symphysis"
acetabulum the large socket of the pelvic bone that forms where the three bones meet; forms the ball-and-socket joint with the femur
femur (thigh bone) the proximal long bone of the rear leg; head of femur articulates with the acetabulum
femoral head head of the femus; connected to a narrow areas called the "femoral neck"
trochanters large, flat, broad projections on the femur
condyles rounded projections on the femur
patella a large sesamoid bone in the rear limb (humans: patella is the "kneecap" and joint is the "knee")
stifle joint (should not be referred to as "knee") the joint that houses the patella
popliteal located on the caudal surface of the stifle; a sesamoid bone in the rear limb of some animals
tibia the large and more weight-bearing distal long bone of the rear limb
fibula the long, slender distal bone of the rear limb
crus the area of the rear limb between the stifle and hock
tarsus (hock) the ankle joint of animals
talus one of the tarsal bones that is the shorter, medial tarsal bone located in the proximal row of tarsal bones
calcaneus the long, lateral tarsal bone located in the proximal row of tarsal bones
metatarsals bones found distal to the tarsus
aperture opening
canal tunnel
condyle rounded projection (that articulates with another bone)
crest high projection or border projection
crista ridge
dens toothlike structure
eminence surface projection
facet smooth area
foramen hole
fossa trench or hollow depressed area
fovea small pit
head major protrusion
lamina thin, flat plate
line low projection or ridge
malleolus rounded projection (distal end of tibia and fibula)
meatus passage or opening
process projection
protuberance projecting part
ramus branch or smaller structure given off by a larger structure
sinus space or cavity
spine sharp projection
sulcus groove
suture seam
trochanter broad, flat projection (on femur)
trochlea pulley-shaped structure in which other structures pass or articulate
tubercle small, rounded surface projection
tuberosity projecting part
arthocentesis surgical puncture of a joint to remove fluid for analysis
arthrography injection of a joint with contrast material for radiographic examination
arthroscopy visual examination of the joint using a fiberoptic scope
radiology study of internal body structures after exposure to ionizing radiation; used to detect fractures and diseases of the bones
ankylosis loss of joint mobility caused by disease, injury or surgery
arthralgia joint pain
arthritis inflammation of the joints
arthrodynia joint pain
arthropathy joint disease
bursitis inflammation of the bursa
chondromalacia abnormal cartilage softening
discospondylitis inflammation of the intervertebral disc and vertebae
exostosis benign growth on the bone surface
gouty arthritis (gout) joint inflammation associated with the formation of uric acid crystals in the joint (more commonly seen in birds)
hip dysplasia abnormal development of the pelvic joint causing the head of the femur and the acetabulum to be not aligned properly; most commonly seen in large breed dogs
intervertebral disc disease (aka: herniated disc, ruptured disc or IVDD) rupture or protrusion of the cushioning disc found between the vertebrae that results in pressure on the spinal core or spinal nerve roots
kyphosis ("hunchback") dorsal curvature of the spine
Legg-Calve-Perthes disease idiopathic necrosis of the femoral head and neck of small breed dogs; aka: avascular necrosis of the femoral head and neck
lordosis ("swayback") position in which the vertebral column is abnormally curved ventrally; seen commonly in cats that are in heat
luxation dislocation or displacement of a bone from its joint
myeloma tumor composed of cells derived from the hematopoietic tissues of bone marrow
ostealgia bone pain
osteitis inflammation of bone
osteoarthritis (aka: degenerative joint disease, DJD) degenerative joint disease commonly associated with aging or wear and tear on the joints
osteochondrosis degeneration and necrosis of bone and cartilage followed by regeneration or recalcification
osteochondrosis dissecans degenration or necrosis of bone and cartilage followed by regeneration or recalcification with dissecting flap of articular cartilage and some inflammatory joint changes; detached pieces of articular cartilage are called "joint mice" or "osteophytes"
osteomalacia abnormal softening of bone
osteomyelitis inflammation of bone and bone marrow
osteonecrosis death of bone tissue
osteoporosis abnormal condition of marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity
osteosclerosis abnormal hardening of bone
periostitis inflammation of the fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone
rheumatoid arthritis auto-immune disorder of the connective tissues and joints
sequestrum piece of dead bone that is partially or fully detached form the adjacent healthy bone
spondylitis inflammation of the vertebrae
spondylosis any degenerative disorder of the vertebrae
spondylosis deformans chronic degeneration of the articular processes and the development of bony outgrowths around the ventral edge of the vertebrae
subluxation partial dislocation or displacement of a bone from its joint
synovitis inflammation of the synovial membrane of joints
avulsion fracture broken bone in which the site of muscle, tendon, or ligament insertion is detached by a foreful pull
callus bulging deposit around the area of a bone fracture that may eventually become bone
closed fracture (simple fx) broken bone in which there is no open wound in the skin
comminuted fracture broken bone that is splintered or crushed into multiple pieces
compression fracture broken bone as a result of when the bones are pressed together
crepitation cracking sensation that is felt and heard when broken bones move together
fracture broken bone
greenstick fracture (incomplete fx) bone that is broken only on one side and the other side is bent
immobilization act of holding, suturing or fastening a bone in a fixed position, usually with a bandage or cast
manipulation (reduction) attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or dislocation
oblique fracture broken bone that has an angular break diagonal to the long axis
open fracture (compound fx) broken bone in which there is an open wound in the skin
physeal fracture broken bone that is broken at the epiphyseal line or growth plate; these fx's are further categorized as Salter-Harris I-V fractures
spiral fracture broken bone in which the bone is twisted or spiraled apart
transverse fracture broken bone that is broken at right angles to its axis or straight across the bone
amputation removal of all or part of a body part
arthrodesis fusion of a joint or the spinal vertebrae by surgical means
chemonucleolysis process of dissolving part of the center of an intervertebral disc by injecting a foreign object
craniotomy surgical incision or opening into the skull
laminectomy surgical removal of the dorsal arch of a vertebra
onychemtomy surgical removal of a claw
ostectomy surgical removal of bone
osteocentesis surgical puncture of a bone
osteodesis fusion of bones
osteopexy surgical fixation of a bone to the body wall
osteoplasty surgical repair of bone
osteostomy surgical creation of a permanent new opening in bone
osteotomy surgical incision or sectioning of bone
trephination process of cutting a hole into a bone using a "trephine" (circular sawlike instrument used to remove bone and tissue)
Created by: mlmertens91