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Medical Terminology

Week 2 - Directional Terms, Cells, Tissues, Glands, Body Systems

TermDefinition
ventral refers to the belly or underside of a body or body part
dorsal refers to the back
cranial toward the head
caudal toward the tail
anterior front of the body
posterior rear of the body
rostral refers to nose end of the head
cephalic pertaining to the head
medial toward the midline
lateral away from the midline
superior uppermost, above or toward the head
inferior lowermost, below or toward the tail
proximal nearest the midline or nearest to the beginning of a structure
distal farthest from the midline or farthest from the beginning of a structure
superficial near the surface (aka: external)
deep away from the surface (aka: internal)
palmar the caudal surface of the manus (front paw) including the carpus (from the antebrachial joint distally)
plantar the caudal surface of the pes (rear paw) including the tarsus (from the tibiotarsal joint distally)
midsagittal plane (aka: median plane/midline) the plane that divides the body into equal right and left halves
sagittal plane the plane that divides the body into unequal right and left parts
dorsal plane (frontal plane/coronal plane) the plane that divides the body into dorsal (back) and ventral (belly) parts
transverse plane (aka: horizontal plane/cross-sectional plane) the plane that divides the body into cranial and caudal parts; may also describe a perpendicular transection to the long axis of an appendage
-logy the study of
anatomy the study of body structure
physiology the study of body function(s)
pathology the study of the nature, causes and development of abnormal conditions
pathophysiology the study of changes in function caused by disease
etiology the study of disease
dental arcade term used to describe how teeth are arranged in the mouth ("arcade" refers to a series of arches, which is how teeth are arranged in the oral cavity)
lingual surface the tooth surface of the mandible (lower jaw) that faces the tongue
palatal surface the tooth surface of the maxilla (upper jaw) that faces the tongue
buccal surface (aka: vestibular surface) the aspect of the tooth that faces the cheek (vestibule = space or cavity at an entrance)
occlusal surface the aspect of the teeth that meet when chewing (occluding = stopping things from passing when clenched)
labial surface the tooth surface facing the lips
contact surfaces the aspects of the teeth that touch other teeth (divided into mesial and distal)
mesial contact surface the surface closest to the midline of the dental arcade
distal contact surface the surface furthest from the midline of the dental arcade
cavity a hole or hollow space in the body that contains and protects organs
cranial cavity the hollow space that contains the brain in the skull
spinal cavity the hollow space that contains the spinal cord within the spinal column
thoracic/chest cavity the hollow space that contains the heart and lungs within the ribs between the neck and diaphragm
abdominal cavity the hollow space that contains the major organs of the digestion located between the diaphragm and pelvic cavity
peritoneal cavity the hollow space within the abdominal cavity between the parietal peritoneum and visceral peritoneum
pelvic cavity the hollow space that contains the reproductive and some excretory systems organs bounded by the pelvic bones
abdomen the portion of the body between the thorax and pelvis containing the abdominal cavity
thorax the chest region located between the neck and the diaphragm
groin/inguinal area the lower region of the abdomen adjacent to the thigh
membranes thin layers of tissue that cover a surface, line a cavity or divide a space or an organ
peritoneum the membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities that also covers some organs in these cavities (can be further divided)
parietal peritoneum the outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities
visceral peritoneum the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the abdominal organs
peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum
umbilicus (aka: navel) the pit of the abdominal wall marking the point where the umbilical cord entered the fetus
mesentery the layer of the peritoneum that suspends parts of the intestine in the abdominal cavity
retroperitoneal means superficial to the peritoneum
recumbant medical term for lying down
dorsal recumbancy lying on the back
ventral / sternal recumbancy lying on the belly
left lateral recumbancy lying on the left side
right lateral recumbancy lying on the right side
prone lying n ventral or sternal recumbancy
supine lying in dorsal recumbancy
adduction movement toward the midline
abduction movement away from the midline
flexion closure of a joint angle / reduction of the angle between two bones
extension straightening of a joint or an increase in the angle between two bones
hyperflexion movement of the palmar or plantar joints are being flexed too far
hyperextension dorsal movement of the joints beyond the reference angles
supination the act of rotating a limb or body part so that the palmar surface is turned upward
pronation the act of rotating a limb or body part so that the palmar surface is turned downward
rotation circular movement around the axis
cyt(o) cells: are specialized and grouped together to form tissues and organs
cytology the student of cell origin, structure, function and pathology
protoplasm the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus collectively
cell membrane (aka: plasma membrane) the structure lining the cells that protects the cell's contents and regulates what goes in and out of the cell
cytoplasm the gelatinous material located in the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
nucleus the structure in the cell that contains the nucleoplasm, chromosomes and the surrounding membrane
nucleoplasm the material in the nucleus
chromosomes the structures in the nucleus composed of DNA which transmits genetic information
genetic disorder any inherited disease or condition caused by defective genes
congenital something that is present at birth
anomoly deviation from what is regarded "normal"; a defect
tissue (list types) a group of specialized cells that is similar in structure and function (4 types of tissue - epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous)
histology the study of structure, composition and function of tissues
epithelial tissue / epithelium (list types) type of tissue that covers internal and external body surfaces and is made up of tightly packed cells in a variety of arrangements (there are two types of epithelial tissue)
endothelium the cellular covering that forms the lining of internal organs, including blood vessels (endo=within)
mesothelium the cellular covering that forms the lining of serous membranes, such as peritoneum
connective tissue type of tissue that adds support and structure to the body by holding the organs in place and binding body parts together (types: bone, cartilage, dense connective tissue [found in tendons/ligaments] loose connective tissue and blood)
adipose tissue another form of connective tissue; fat
muscle tissuem (list types) type of tissue that contains cell material with the specialized ability to contract and relax (3 types: skeletal, smooth and cardiac)
nervous tissue type of tissue that contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and conduct electrical impuses
-plasia describes formation, development and growth of tissue and cell numbers
-trophy means formation, development and increase in the size of tissue and cells
anaplasia a change in the structure of cells and their orientation to each other
aplasia a lack of development of an organ or a tissue or a cell
dysplasia an abnormal growth or development of an organ or a tissue or a cell
hyperplasia an abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or a tissue or a cell
hypoplasia an incomplete or less than normal development of an organ or a tissue or a cell
neoplasia any abnormal new growth of tissue in which multiplication of cells is uncontrolled, more rapid than normal and progressive
tumor a distinct mass of tissue formed as a result of neoplasia
malignant tending to spread or be life threatening
benign not recurring
-oma means tumor or neoplasm
atrophy a decrease in size or complete wasting of an organ or tissue or cell
dystrophy a defective growth in the size of an organ or tissue or cell
hypertrophy an increase in the size of an organ or tissue or cell
gland groups of specialized cells that secrete material used elsewhere in the body
exocrine glands groups of cells that secrete their chemical substances into ducts that lead out of the body or to another organ (ie. sweat glands, sebaceous glands, portion of pancreas that secretes digestive glands)
endocrine glands groups of cells that secrete their chemical substances directly into the bloodstream, which transports them throughout the body; ductless (ie. thyroid gland, pituitary gland, portion of the pancreas that secretes insulin)
organ a part of the body that performs a special function(s)
skeletal system (function) 1. Support and shape 2. Protection 3. Hematopoiesis 4. Mineral storage
muscular system (function) 1. Locomotion 2. Movement of bodily fluids 3. Body heat generation
cardiovascular system (function) 1. Delivers oxygen and nutrients to tissue 2. Transports cellular waste from body 3. Performs immune and endocrine function
lymphatic and immune systems (function) 1. Provide nutrients to and remove waste from tissues 2. Protect the body from harmful substances
respiratory system (function) 1. Brings oxygen into the body for transportation to cells 2. Removes carbon dioxide and some water waste from the body
digestive system (function) 1. Digestion of ingested food 2. Absorption of digested food 3. Elimination of solid waste
urinary system (function) 1. Filters blood to remove waste 2. Maintains electrolyte balance 3. Regulates fluid balance
nervous system and special senses (function) 1. Coordinating mechanism 2. Reception of stimuli 3. Transmission of messages
integumentary system (function) 1. Protection of body, temperature and water regulation
endrocrine system 1. Integrates body functions, homeostasis and growth
reproductive system (function) 1. Production of new life
Created by: mlmertens91