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Chapter 1

Descriptive terms

Dorsal Away from the ground. Surfaces BELOW the proximal, Opposite the Palmar and Plantar surfaces
Ventral Toward the ground. (Ex) Tongue is ventral to nasal cavity
Cranial Toward the head (ex) Neck is cranial to the tail) Anterior is cranial in the eye
Caudal Towards the tail (ex) Hindllimb is caudal to the forelilmb) Posterior is caudal in eye
Rostral Part of the head closer to the nose
Palmar Behind the Dorsal side of the forelimb. Below the proximal end of the carpus directed toward the ground. Replacing Caudal in the leg
Plantar Behind the Dorsal side of the back limb. Below the proximal end of the tarsus directed toward the ground.Replacing Caudal in the leg
Medial Toward the median plane. (ex) The chest is medial to the thoracic limbs
Lateral Farther from the median plane The shoulder is lateral to the ribs
Proximal The point nearest the trunk or point of origin of a limb, vessel, nerve or organ. (the elbow is proximal to the digit
Distal Farther from the trunk or point of origin of a limb, vessel, nerve or organ. (the carpus is distal to the elbow)
Superficial nearer the surface (Biceps brachii muscle is superficial to the humerus)
Deep farther from the surface (the femur is deep to the thigh muscles)
Peripheral distant from its point of origin; near the surface of the body. (nerves are peripheral to the CNS- brain and spinal cord
Axial and abaxial indicates the relative position tof the longitudinal axis of the limb (restricted to digits where axis pass the 3rd & 4th digits
Axial closer to the longitudinal axis (the inside of a digit)
Abaxial Farther from the longitudinal axis of a limb (the outside of a digit)
External Closer to the outer surface of a structure (the capsule is external to the kidney)
Internal Closer to the center of a structure (the medulla is internal to the cortex)
Supra- (prefix) Above A prefix signigying above or over (supraspinatus, supraorbital)
Infra--(prefix) Beneath A prefix signifying below or beneath (infraspinatus, infratrochlear)
Created by: dawneyz333