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Integumentary Rosens

epidermis outermost layer of the skin, may contain up to five layers
keratinization process in which keratin fills a cell, replacing the internal structures, leading to the cell's death and hardening
stratum corneum the horny, outermost layer of the epidermis that consists of the dead, fully keratinized cells
stratum lucidum the clear, second layer of the epidermis that consists of dead, keratinized cells; usually found only in the skin of the nose and footpads
stratum granulosum the granular, third layer of the epidermis that may or may not be present in all areas of the body; cells are in the process of keratinization and are dying
stratum spinosum the fourth, prickle cell layer of the epidermis consisting of 1 to 3 layers of living cells that only resume cell division if the upper layers are removed by trauma or disease
stratum basale the final, deepest layer of the epidermis consisting of actively dividing cells formed in a single layer basal layer
keratinocyte cell in the stratum basale which produces keratin
melanocyte cell in the stratum basale which produces melanin; the number of melanocytes determine the darkness of the skin
basement membrane structure which supports the epidermis and separates it from the dermis
dermis layer of the skin which provides structure and nutritional support to the epidermis; varies in thickness; consists of collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers and fibroblasts, macrophages, and adipocytes
hypodermis layer of skin under the dermis; thickness varies depending on the areas, species, and weight; contains blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue, but is primarily composed a fat
integumentary system consists of skin and all it's related structures, including hair, paw pads, claws, hooves, horns, antlers, and skin glands
hair shaft portion of the hair that rises above the surface of the skin; composed of the cuticle, cortex, and medulla
hair root portion of the hair beneath the surface of the skin, lying in and arising from the hair follicle
hair follicle shaft that is continuous with the surface of the skin and contains the hair root
arrector pili muscles small muscles attached to the hair follicle and embedded in the dermis; the muscles contract to create goosebumps that make hair stand up
anagen active growth phase of the hair growth cycle, during which cells at the hair root divide to produce the keratinized cells of the hair shaft
telogen resting phase of the hair growth cycle, hair isn't growing and is retained in the hair follicle for a period of time before being shed
catagen transitional phase of the hair growth cycle, between anagen and telogen, where growth slows down
wall visible element of the hoof
periople small band of soft, horny tissue found at the proximal end of the wall; represents the junction between the wall and the skin of the limb
coronet layer of skin where the hoof growth begins
sole concave portion of the bottom of the hoof
frog V-shaped ridge of soft, horny material at the bottom of the hoof; found only in horses
bulb soft tissue covering the heel of the foot, just behind the frog
corium living tissue immediately beneath the hoof wall inner layer of the horn
horn core hollow extension of the frontal skull bone that communicates with the sinus cavities
sebaceous glands microscopic infoldings of the epidermis usually associated with hair follicles through a small duct; releases sebum; most common skin gland
sebum oily, waxy substance released when foamy cells from the sebaceous gland burst; contains cholesterol, fatty acids, and waxy chemicals; soften skin, forms a thin film over the stratum corneum to retain moisture, helps kill bacteria via fatty acids and salts
apocrine sweat glands infoldings of the skin associated with hair follicles through an opening above the sebaceous gland duct; produces a protein rich fluid that mixes with sebum to form the protective film over your stratum corneum; second most common skin gland
mammary glands form of apocrine sweat gland modified to produce milk
eccrine sweat glands located between the junction of the dermis and hypodermis; very and amount between species; helps regulate temperature by releasing water and salt; third type of skin gland
anal sacs combinations of modified sebaceous and apocrine glands that lie on each side of the anus; produce foul-smelling secretions used in territorial marking by dogs and cats; may become impacted – especially in dogs – and require surgery
cardiovascular system circulatory system where blood and its associated cells and products are carried
lymphatic system circulatory system more lymph – fluid composed of water, proteins, and certain white blood cells – is carried
pericardium sac surrounding the heart composed of fibrous and elastic connective tissues and epithelial cells
pericardial fluid fluid in the pericardium which lubricates the heart and makes it pump more efficiently
pericardial effusion when fluid in the pericardial sac increases, blocking the hearts ability to expand and fill with blood, causing weakness
epicardium outer layer of the heart; connective tissue consisting of an outer layer of mesothelial cells and an inner layer of fat and elastic connective tissue that contain nerves and small blood vessels that carry blood to the muscle cells of the heart
mesothelial cells fat epithelial cells
myocardium muscle layer of the heart beneath the epicardium; composed of cardiac muscle
myocytes cardiac muscle cells; connect to each other with intercalated disks allowing the cells to conduct electrical impulses
endocardium layer of epithelial tissue lining the myocardium on the inside of the heart
atria (plural) atrium (singular) two (left and right) of the four chambers of the heart; smaller and less muscular than the ventricles; situated dorsal to the ventricles
ventricles two (left and right) of the four chambers of the heart; larger and more muscular than the atria
atrial septum wall of muscle dividing the two atria
ventricular septum wall of muscle dividing the two ventricles
valves 2 to 3 roughly triangular flaps of elastic fibrous connective tissue that can cover the opening between the atrium and ventricle
chordae tendineae cords of fibrous tissue the anchor valves to papillary muscles heart strings
papillary muscles finger-like muscular projections of the myocardium into the lumen of each ventricle
lumen interior or central cavity of a tubular or other hollow structure in an organism or cell
atrioventricular valve structure of fibrous ring and its associated flaps located between the atrium and ventricle on both the left and right sides
tricuspid valve right atrioventricular valve; usually has three flaps – except in cats and dogs which have two
bicuspid valve or mitral valve left atrioventricular valve; usually has only two flaps
semilunar valves two valves, possessing two flaps, controlling blood flow out of the heart
pulmonary semilunar valve semilunar valve lying between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery; controls blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery
aortic semilunar valve semilunar valve lying between the left ventricle and the aorta; controls blood flow from the left ventricle through the aorta
heart failure congestion and increased pressure in certain chambers of the heart and some large blood vessels; often caused when the valves in the heart don't close completely, allowing some blood to flow in the wrong direction
endocardiosis degenerative process, associated with age, that can damage the heart valves
endocarditis an inflammation of the heart valve due to infection
murmur turbulence in the flow of blood which can be heard as a "swishing" sound; caused by diseases or damage to the heart valves
base the area where the atria reside along with the entrance and exit of the large blood vessels connected to the heart
apex the part of the heart opposite the base; lives near the sternum; where the ventricles end
long axis line drawn from the apex to the base of the heart; direction maybe change by certain diseases that alter the heart muscle or the size of the chambers
radiographs x-rays
systemic circulation the network of blood vessels supplying all cells of the body; takes oxygen and nutrient rich blood from the heart to the cells of the body, then carries oxygen and nutrient poor blood from the body's cells back to the heart
pulmonary circulation carries carbon dioxide to the lungs and oxygen away from the lungs
caudal vena cava vein which delivers blood to the right atrium from the organs in the abdomen
cranial vena cava vein which delivers blood to the right atrium from the head
cardiac conduction system modified cardiac cells that form a network
sinoatrial node or cardiac pacemaker collection of cells within the right atrium where the normal electrical impulses in the heart originate and stimulate the heart muscles to contract
polarization changes in electrical current
internodal pathways fibers within the atrial wall
atrioventricular node collection of conduction fibers located at the junction of the atria and ventricles
atrioventricular bundle conducts electrical signals into the ventricles
right and left bundles of Purkinje collection of nerve fibers traveling through the right and left ventricles
systole the contraction phase of the heartbeat that takes place as the current travels around the heart; one of the two phases of the cardiac cycle
diastole when the cardiac muscle cells relax during repolarization and the chambers enlarge and fill with blood; one of the two phases of the cardiac cycle
arrhythmias abnormalities in the electrical activity of the heart
arteries blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart toward the cells of the body; responsible for establishing blood pressure within the circulatory system; two types of arteries exist
arterioles smaller blood vessels that branch out from the arteries and lead to the capillaries; lack significant elastic fibers and contain only a few layers of smooth muscle cells in the tunica media; has extremely thin tunica adventita and tunica intima
capillaries microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles and venules and allow the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste materials between blood and the body's cells; possess very thin walls that lack a tunica adventita or tunica media
venules microscopic blood vessels, slightly larger than capillaries, that carry blood from capillaries to veins
veins blood vessels that carry blood from the body's cells back toward the heart
tunica adventita outer layer of blood vessels; contains small blood vessel's that transport oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the vessel's walls in large blood vessels; composed of connective tissue
tunica media middle layer of blood vessels; composed of smooth muscle cells that contract, based on the input of some nerves and hormones, to control the blood vessel's diameter; may also contain elastic connective tissue
tunica intima innermost layer of a blood vessel; composed of endothelium an underlying connective tissue
elastic arteries most major arteries close close to the heart including pulmonary arteries, the aorta, and the carotid arteries; contain a large proportion of elastic connective tissue within the tunica media
muscular arteries branches of the main elastic arteries; contain more muscle than elastic fibers in the tunica media allowing for finer control of the vessel's diameter
aorta the major artery leaving the heart; the largest blood vessel in the body; travels through the diaphragm and into the abdomen where it ends at the pelvis; all systemic circulation arteries branch off from the aorta
iliac arteries arteries that supply the hind legs and tail
coronary artery first artery to exit the aorta; supplies blood to the heart muscle; can become clogged leading to heart attacks
subclavian arteries branch off the aorta and give rise to the carotid arteries
carotid arteries the major arteries supplying blood to the head and neck
celiac artery supplies blood to the stomach, spleen, and liver
cranial mesenteric and caudal mesenteric arteries supply blood to the intestines
renal arteries supply blood to the kidneys
femoral artery branches off the iliac arteries and travels distally along the medial surface of the rear leg
lingual artery artery on the ventral surface of the tongue; can be used to monitor the pulse in an anesthetized animal
jugular veins carry blood from the head to the cranial vena cava, which empties into the right atrium; useful for drawing blood
mesenteric vein system unique feature of the intestinal blood supply, in which multiple veins from the intestines collectively join together and form the portal vein, which empties into the liver, which is drained by the hepatic vein, which empties into the caudal vena cava
portal vein multiple veins from the intestines which have joined together; empties into the liver where the blood is filtered and detoxified
hepatic vein drains blood from the liver and empties it into the caudal vena cava
cephalic vein located on the anterior surface of the forelegs; useful for drawing blood
lateral saphenous vein located on the lateral surface of the hind legs just proximal to the tarsus; useful for drawing blood
medial saphenous vein located on the medial surface of the femur; useful for drawing blood
fetal circulation performs the same functions as the postpartum circulation system but is structurally different – relying on the placenta to act as the site of gas, nutrient, and waste product exchange in place of the lungs
placenta membrane attaching the fetus to the mother's uterus; acts as the site of gas, nutrient, and waste product exchange
umbilical cord vessels to and from the placenta
umbilical arteries carries blood from the fetus to the placenta
umbilical vein carries blood from the placenta through the fetus' liver and to the fetus' right atrium
interatrial septum connects the left and right atrium
foramen ovale an opening in the interatrial septum in the fetal heart; allows blood to be pumped from the right atrium to the left without traveling through the right ventricle and lungs
ductus arteriosis an opening connecting the pulmonary artery and aorta and fetuses, allowing blood pumped from the right ventricle to travel from the pulmonary artery into the aorta bypassing the lungs
patent ductus arteriosis (PDA) A condition caused when the ductus arteriosis fails to close off after birth causing blood to be partially shunted away from the lung creating a murmur
portosystemic shunts abnormalities of the portal vein in which it doesn't deliver blood to the liver, but carries it from the intestines to the caudal vena cava causing toxins absorbed by the intestines to build up, leading to nervous system damage
blood fluid that circulates the arteries and veins of vertebrate animals; carries nearly all chemicals that need to be delivered from one part of the body to another
plasma colorless fluid component of blood; composed primarily of water as well as various proteins, electrolytes, minerals, sugars, fats, acids, and vitamins
electrolytes salts and minerals that can conduct electrical impulses in the body
erythrocytes red blood cells; responsible for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide; shaped like biconcave disks with a flexible membrane; mature erythrocytes do not possess a nucleus, create new proteins, or divide
leukocytes white blood cells; part of the body's immune system; generally slightly larger than erythrocytes; possess a nucleus and are capable of normal protein synthesis; two categories (agranulocytes and granulocytes) of leukocytes exist
thrombocytes blood platelets; involved in the blood clotting process
hematopoiesis the process of producing blood cells in bone marrow: stem cells divide repeatedly and constantly, giving rise to cells that continue dividing and changing until a mature blood cell is made
stem cells a cell in which a variety of other cells can develop through the process of cellular differentiation
serum plasma with the clotting proteins removed; most common type of blood used in testing
carbon dioxide waste gas produced by the body cells during normal metabolism
carbonic acid chemical formed when carbon dioxide molecules enter red blood cells and react with water molecules
carbonic anhydrase enzyme in red blood cells that speeds up the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to create carbonic acid
bicarbonate the primary form of transport of carbon dioxide in the blood; acts as a pH buffer that neutralizes acid; form is one carbonic acid molecules break down
hydrostatic pressure generated by the beating of the heart and the elasticity of the arteries; tends to force water out of the blood vessels and into the extracellular fluid or into body cavities
colloidal pressure or osmotic pressure pressure generated by the presence of proteins, primarily albumin; tends to retain water in the areas where there's a higher concentration of protein
edema excessive fluid buildup in tissues
effusion fluid acclamation in body cavities
biconcave disks disk-like cells with deep depressions in the center of each cell
hemoglobin protein molecule with an iron molecule at the center; unique to erythrocytes; binds carbon dioxide and oxygen for transport
anemia red blood cell deficiency
hemorrhage blood loss
hemolysis red blood cells destruction
bilirubin a breakdown product of hemoglobin
jaundice or icterus accumulation of bilirubin in the body tissues that creates a yellow color in the skin, gums, and whites of the eyes
erythrocytosis or polycythemia rare disorder of excessive quantities of red blood cells; makes the blood thick, causing sluggish blood flow and seizures
methemoglobinemia condition in which the iron in hemoglobin is oxidized, making it unable to carry oxygen and giving blood a chocolate color; can occur from several toxins including acetaminophen use in cats; potentially reversible with treatment
carbon monoxide poisoning causes hemoglobin to bind with the inhaled carbon monoxide in place of oxygen; fatal if left untreated
granulocytes or polymorphonuclear cells leukocyte category containing 3 types; possess small cytoplasmic granules – small packets of substances produced by the cell that are stored until needed; the nuclei contain several indentations, giving them an irregular, lobular appearance
neutrophils type of granulocyte; engulf and destroy microorganisms a and foreign matter through phagocytosis; releases chemicals that initiate inflammation and cause diapedesis; don't stain under microscopes
eosinophils type of granulocyte; release anti-inflammatory substances and can phagocytize large pathogens; involved with immunity against parasites; contain high levels of histaminase, regulating allergies; take up a red-orange stain, eosin, under microscopes
basophils type of granulocyte; attract eosinophils, may contribute to inflammation, and appear to be involved with allergic reactions; granules contain high levels of heparin and histamine which may be released; stain blue under microscopes
agranulocytes leukocyte category containing two types; lack cytoplasmic granules and nuclei indentations, giving them a mostly round appearance
lymphocytes type of agranulocyte; regulate the immune system by recognizing foreign proteins via immunoglobulin, destroying abnormal cells via chemicals, and recruiting other immune system cells to perform; has two variations based on proteins: B-cells and T-cells
monocytes type of agranulocyte; help activate the immune system; phagocytic; largest type of leukocyte
phagocytosis the process by which a cell "swallows" bacteria
diapedesis the movement of blood cells through the blood vessels to the surrounding tissues; typically accompanies inflammation
heparin blocks the blood clotting process, thereby increasing blood flow into the tissue
histamine causes constriction of smooth muscles, mainly in the walls of the venules and the airways in the lungs, resulting in deceased blood flow from the capillaries, leading to fluid leakage and tissue swelling and creating a welt; causes bronchoconstriction
welt a red, raised swelling of the skin that often itches
bronchoconstriction a decrease in diameter of the airways caused by histamine; is exhibited by wheezing, coughing, watery eyes, and runny nose in mild cases but can be fatal if severe
pruritus severe itching of the skin; can be caused by many ailments, but is often a sign in dogs of allergies
mast cells very similar to basophils – contain the same granular content and are very involved with allergic reactions – but are found in connective tissue rather than the circulation
histaminase an enzyme that degrades histamine
macrophages monocytes that have migrated out of blood vessels and into tissues; indistinguishable from monocytes except for their location
B-cells type of lymphocyte; can be stimulated by certain T-cells and/or the presence of an antigen to transform into plasma cells
T-cells type of lymphocyte; can stimulate B-cells to transform into plasma cells; produce lymphokines
plasma cells responsible for producing antibodies
immunoglobulins or antibodies attach to the specific antigen they were designed to recognize and signal other cells of the immune system to attack and destroy the protein or stimulate an allergic reaction
antigen a foreign protein
lymphokines chemicals that can: attract other immune cells – typically macrophages – to the location where they're needed to fight disease, suppress antibody production, prevent neutrophil movement from the site of inflammation, and kill the cells attached to T-c
leukopenia deficiency of leukocytes; can result from a disorder of the bone marrow causing a decreased production of leukocytes, or a bacterial infection causing a severe demand for leukocytes
leukocytosis excess of leukocytes; can occur from infection, inflammation from tissue damage (including cancer), stress, or leukemia
platelets tiny, disk-shaped cells that don't have a nucleus and contain granules that are used in the clotting process; fragments of megakaryocytes
megakaryocytes large cells formed in the bone marrow
Created by: Curious Chelsea



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