Busy. Please wait.
Log in using Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Pharmacology Day#3

GI, pain, analgesic

Stimulation of parasympathetic causes: •Increase intestinal motility and tone •Increase intestinal secretions •Relaxation of sphincters
Stimulation of sympathetic causes •Decreases intestinal motility and tone •Decreases intestinal secretions •Inhibits sphincters
GI hormones stimulate gastric secretions, gallbladder emptying, gastric emptying
Histamine causes increase in HCl acid in stomach
Vomiting is initiated by activation of emetic center in medulla of brain
The vomiting center connected by nerve pathways to chemoreceptor trigger zone (CRTZ), cerebral cortex, and peripheral receptors in pharynx, GI tract, urinary system, and heart
Persistent vomiting Causes dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, and acid-base imbalances
Emetics are drugs that induce vomiting, Given to animals that have ingested toxins
apomorphine •Used for induction of vomiting dogs •Stimulates dopamine receptors in the CRTZ •Administer topically in conjunctival sac or parenterally
xylazine emetic of choice in cats
Antiemetics are drugs used to prevent or control vomiting
Phenothiazine derivatives chlorpromazine is used in dogs and cats –More effective in dogs –aka Thorazine
Procainamide derivatives metoclopramide has central and peripheral anti- emetic activities –May be administered often or in continuous drip –aka Reglan –Adverse effects: constipation
Antihistamines diphenhydrinate (Dramamine) •diphenhydramine (Benadryl) •meclizine (Antivert) –effective when vomiting is result of motion sickness
NK-1 receptor antagonists: maropitant citrrate (Cerenia) •Block binding of substance P (a neurotransmitter involved in vomiting) to NK-1 receptors in CRTZ •Adverse effects: diarrhea, bloody stool, anorexia, endotoxic shock, and otitis
Animals get gastric ulcers for various reasons including stress, metabolic disease, gastric hyperacidity, and drug therap
Antiulcer Medications; cimetidine (Tagamet) •Treats or prevents ulcers, gastric reflux, and esophagitis
Antiulcer Medications ranitidine (Zantac) •Same as cimetidine •Dose twice daily (others are 3-4 times daily
Antiulcer Medications famotidine (Pepcid or Pepcid AC) •Treats constipation and delayed gastric empty
Antiulcer Medications omeprazole (Prilosec and Gastrogard) •Treats gastric or duodenal ulcers •Approved for use in horses and foals
Antiulcer Medications Antacids decrease HCl levels in stomach for treatment and prevention of gastric ulcers (prevent absorption of other drugs) •magnesium hydroxide (Milk of magnesia) •aluminum/magnesium hydroxide (Maalox, Mylanta
Antiulcer Medications Gastromucosal protectants are paste-like materials that form barrier over ulcer
Antiulcer Medications sucralfate (Carafate) Only gastromucosal protectant commonly used in veterinary medicine –Adverse effects: constipation
misoprostal (Cytotec) Prevents and treats gastric ulcers associated with use of NSAIDs
Antidiarrheal Medications: Narcotic analgesics(opiates) effective in control of diarrhea; diphenoxylate (Lomotil) –loperamide (Imodium) paregoric/kaolin/pectin (Parepectolin)
Protectants/Adsorbents coats mucosa to protect from irritation, binds toxins to prevent harmful effects. bismuth subsalicylate Caution: contains salicylic acid–activated charcoal (Toxiban)
Laxatives are substances that loosen bowel contents and encourage their evacuation
Laxative: Saline/hyperosmotic agents hold water in GI tract which softens stool •lactulose •magnesium hydroxide •epsom salts •fleet enema (dogs and foals)
Laxatives: Bulk-producing agents are indigestible plant material that swell to stimulate peristalsis •Metamucil •Equine psyllium – relief and prevention of sand impaction in horsesl
Laxatives: Lubricants are oils or hydrocarbon derivatives that soften fecal mass and make it easier to pass
Laxatives: mineral oil is used to treat colic, impaction, and constipation in horses; used as a laxative in other specie
Laxatives: Surfactants/stool softeners reduce surface tension and allow water to penetrate GI content
Laxatives: docusate sodium (Colase) Tastes terrible if capsules are broken, cats will foam at mouth Pet-Enema, Enema SA
Created by: vettechstudent



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards