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Pharmacology Day#3

GI, pain, analgesic

TermDefinition
Stimulation of parasympathetic causes: •Increase intestinal motility and tone •Increase intestinal secretions •Relaxation of sphincters
Stimulation of sympathetic causes •Decreases intestinal motility and tone •Decreases intestinal secretions •Inhibits sphincters
GI hormones stimulate gastric secretions, gallbladder emptying, gastric emptying
Histamine causes increase in HCl acid in stomach
Vomiting is initiated by activation of emetic center in medulla of brain
The vomiting center connected by nerve pathways to chemoreceptor trigger zone (CRTZ), cerebral cortex, and peripheral receptors in pharynx, GI tract, urinary system, and heart
Persistent vomiting Causes dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, and acid-base imbalances
Emetics are drugs that induce vomiting, Given to animals that have ingested toxins
apomorphine •Used for induction of vomiting dogs •Stimulates dopamine receptors in the CRTZ •Administer topically in conjunctival sac or parenterally
xylazine emetic of choice in cats
Antiemetics are drugs used to prevent or control vomiting
Phenothiazine derivatives chlorpromazine is used in dogs and cats –More effective in dogs –aka Thorazine
Procainamide derivatives metoclopramide has central and peripheral anti- emetic activities –May be administered often or in continuous drip –aka Reglan –Adverse effects: constipation
Antihistamines diphenhydrinate (Dramamine) •diphenhydramine (Benadryl) •meclizine (Antivert) –effective when vomiting is result of motion sickness
NK-1 receptor antagonists: maropitant citrrate (Cerenia) •Block binding of substance P (a neurotransmitter involved in vomiting) to NK-1 receptors in CRTZ •Adverse effects: diarrhea, bloody stool, anorexia, endotoxic shock, and otitis
Animals get gastric ulcers for various reasons including stress, metabolic disease, gastric hyperacidity, and drug therap
Antiulcer Medications; cimetidine (Tagamet) •Treats or prevents ulcers, gastric reflux, and esophagitis
Antiulcer Medications ranitidine (Zantac) •Same as cimetidine •Dose twice daily (others are 3-4 times daily
Antiulcer Medications famotidine (Pepcid or Pepcid AC) •Treats constipation and delayed gastric empty
Antiulcer Medications omeprazole (Prilosec and Gastrogard) •Treats gastric or duodenal ulcers •Approved for use in horses and foals
Antiulcer Medications Antacids decrease HCl levels in stomach for treatment and prevention of gastric ulcers (prevent absorption of other drugs) •magnesium hydroxide (Milk of magnesia) •aluminum/magnesium hydroxide (Maalox, Mylanta
Antiulcer Medications Gastromucosal protectants are paste-like materials that form barrier over ulcer
Antiulcer Medications sucralfate (Carafate) Only gastromucosal protectant commonly used in veterinary medicine –Adverse effects: constipation
misoprostal (Cytotec) Prevents and treats gastric ulcers associated with use of NSAIDs
Antidiarrheal Medications: Narcotic analgesics(opiates) effective in control of diarrhea; diphenoxylate (Lomotil) –loperamide (Imodium) paregoric/kaolin/pectin (Parepectolin)
Protectants/Adsorbents coats mucosa to protect from irritation, binds toxins to prevent harmful effects. bismuth subsalicylate Caution: contains salicylic acid–activated charcoal (Toxiban)
Laxatives are substances that loosen bowel contents and encourage their evacuation
Laxative: Saline/hyperosmotic agents hold water in GI tract which softens stool •lactulose •magnesium hydroxide •epsom salts •fleet enema (dogs and foals)
Laxatives: Bulk-producing agents are indigestible plant material that swell to stimulate peristalsis •Metamucil •Equine psyllium – relief and prevention of sand impaction in horsesl
Laxatives: Lubricants are oils or hydrocarbon derivatives that soften fecal mass and make it easier to pass
Laxatives: mineral oil is used to treat colic, impaction, and constipation in horses; used as a laxative in other specie
Laxatives: Surfactants/stool softeners reduce surface tension and allow water to penetrate GI content
Laxatives: docusate sodium (Colase) Tastes terrible if capsules are broken, cats will foam at mouth Pet-Enema, Enema SA
Created by: vettechstudent