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Vt107 pharmacology 2

Pharamology Dr.Musa quiz 2

The pancreas produces two principal hormones –Insulin produced by beta cells; causes decrease in blood glucose levels –Glucagon produced by alpha cells; promotes increase in blood glucose levels
Diabetes mellitus Type I – results from inadequate secretion of insulin •Insulin-dependent –Most common type in dogs and cats –Type II – results from resistance of tissue to action of insulin
Diabetes mellitus clinical signs Both forms cause PU/PD, polyphagia, and weight loss
Why do we use caution when using corticosteroids, epinephrine, and progesterone in diabetic patients? because they tend to increase blood glucose levels
Can insulin still be efffective given orally? Insulin is not effective when given orally because digestive tract breaks down protein molecule before it can be absorbed
Insulin is usually classified according to its duration Short acting –Intermediate acting –Long acting
Regular insulin (Humulin R and Navolin R) is fast acting insulin that can be administered IV,IM or SQ –Used to treat diabetic ketoacidosis until blood glucose levels are reduced and animal is stable
NPH and PZI (Humulin N, Navolin N and PZI Vet) insulin are intermediate-acting insulins –Used to control uncomplicated diabetes in dogs and cats
what can result from mild to moderate hypoglycemia resulting from overdose can be treated by feeding animal or administering Karo syrup
what are 2 drugs that can treat hypoglycemia diazoxide (Proglycem) –octreotide (Sandostatin) •Treats low blood glucose levels associated with hyper-secretion of insulin that occurs in tumors of beta cells of pancreas (insulinoma) in dogs and ferrets
Two abnormalities of thyroid function that are encountered in veterinary medicine are –Hypothyroid –Hyperthyroidism
Hypothyroidism most often in dogs Clinical signs: Weight gain, lethargy, cold intolerance, dry hair coat, bradycardia
Hyperthyroidism is found more often in older cats clinical signs: Weight loss, increased appetite, restlessness, hyperexictability, tachycardia
what is Goiter? caused by inadequate iodide (salt) in diet
Drugs used to treat Hypothyroidism levothyroxine sodium (Soloxine) (T4) •Used for treatment of hypothyroid conditions in all species
Drugs used to Hypothyroidism liothyronine sodium (Cytomel) (T3) to treat hypothyroidism in cases that respond poorly to T4
What does insulin do to the body? Causes glucose to enter the cell
What drug is a synthetic thyroid hormone? Soloxine
Treatment of hyperthyroidism is directed at lowering blood levels of T3 and T4 Radioactive Iodine (1-131) •May be given IV to destroy over-productive thyroid tissue
Drugs used to treat Hyperthyroidism: methimazole (Tapazole or Felimazole) Used to treat feline hyperthyroidism
propranolol or atenolol Used to treat tachycardia associated with hyperthyroidism
Drugs used to treat Hyperadrenocorticism , ketoconazole antifungal agent if other drugs not effective
Drugs used to treat Hyperadrenocorticism mitotaine (Lysodren): adrenal cytotoxic that inhibits/destroys cortisol producing layers of adrenal gland
Drugs used to treat Hyperadrenocorticism selegiline (Anipryl) MAO-B inhibitor, not very effective
Drugs used to treat Hyperadrenocorticism trilostane (Vetoryl) adrenal steroid synthesis inhibitor
What drug is an adrenal cytotoxic drug? Mitotane
What drug reduces synthesis of cortisol? trilsone (Vetoryl)
What hormone increases contractility of the uterus? Oxytocin
What is levothyroxine clinically used for? Hypothyroidism
What is regular insulin clinically used for? Diabetic ketoacidosis
What is the shortest acting steroid? Cortisone
What is mitotane clinically used for? Cushing dz (Hyperadrenocorticism)
What is aldosterone Mineralcorticoid
What is methimazole clinically used for? Hyperthyroidism
What drug is known as soloxine levothyroxine
What drug is known as Lysodern? mitotane
What drug is known as Vetoryl mitotane
What is a common side effect of too much levothyroxine? Hyperthyroidism symptoms
What is a common side effect of mitotane and trilostane Vomiting and diarrhea
Created by: vettechstudent