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Natural Food Toxins

FDSN524 Final Exam

Toxin Poisonous substance that is a specific product of the metabolic activities of a living organism.
Poison Substance that through its chemical action usually kills, injures, or impairs an organism.
Name four microbiologically produced toxins. C. botulinum, S. aureus, mycotoxins, mushroom toxins
T or F: C. botulinum is a spore former. True
_____ is the toxin responsible for botulism. botulinum neurotoxin
T or F: The larger the LD50 value, the easier it is to kill. False
What are the steps of intoxication for the botulinum toxin? Binding, internalization, translocation, metalloprotease activity
T or F: BoNT can be inactivated by freezing. False
What are the six types of botulism? Foodborne, infant, wound, unknown, adult colonization, aerosolization
Why should infants not ingest honey? Honey has low levels of botulism spores - infants do not have microflora to prevent germination
What are the symptoms of foodborne botulism? Paralysis of involuntary muscles, death from respiratory failure
S. aureus can grow at an Aw as low as: _____. 0.83
S. aureus grows well on _____ foods. high protein
T or F: The staphlococcal enterotoxin is not inactivated by pasteurization. True
T or F: S. aureus complications and death are extremely rare among healthy individuals. True
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of _____. fungi
Name five of the major mycotoxins in food. Aflatoxins, zearalenone, patulin, ochratoxin, ergot
A. falvus and A parasiticus produce _______. Aflatoxins
T or F: B1 aflatoxin is the most carcinogenic natural toxin known to man. True
Zearalenone is produced by Fusarium bacteria and is found in _____. grains
Controlled doses of _____ are used to promote growth in beef cattle. Zearalone
Patulin is mostly found in ______. fruits
Ochratoxin is found in ______. barley
Name the four classes of pesticides. Organophosphate, Carbamate, Organochloride, pyrethroid
Created by: goberoi