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Grains

FDSN524 Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
Grain An edible seed of a cultivated grass such as wheat, corn, rice, and oats.
Bran The hard outer protective skin of the grain - protects from weather, insects, mold, etc.
Bran consists of _____ layers. seven
The source of dietary fiber comes from ____ in grains. bran
The _____ layer is the largest portion of bran, consisting of 75% of dry weight. aleurone
The aleurone layer is a concentrated source of vitamins ____ and ____. B2 and B3
Endosperm Inner portion of grain, supplies food to growing seedling.
About 50-75% of endosperm is ______. starch
______ flour is produced from the endosperm. White
Germ Contains the plant embryo.
Most of the wheat kernel's ____ is found in the germ. fat
T or F: Germ removal improves the shelf-life of flour. True
Germ is rich in _____ fat. polyunsaturated
Name four types of wheat classes. Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, Hard Red Spring, Hard White, Soft White, Durum
Hard wheat Higher in protein, stronger flour, more elastic
Soft wheat Lower in protein, weaker flour
What fraction comes out of the first grind? Bran, shorts, clear flour
What fraction comes out of the second grind? Germ
What fraction comes out of the third grind? Patent flour
What parameters are used to grade flour? Protein content, ash content, starch damage
Streams Blending to achieve desired protein content
Gluten proteins are high in _____ and ______ amino acids. glutamine and proline
_____ gives dough its resistance to extension. Gluetenin
Flour mixed with water is _____. viscolastic
Rheology How a material deforms, flows, or fails when force is applied.
Restoration To bring flour back to its original nutrient content
Fortification To supply nutrients that are essential but not associated with the raw material.
Describe celiac disease. Indigestion of gluten results in damage of the small intestine.
Name five different types of leavening agents. Yeast, bacteria, basking soda, baking powder, steam
Created by: goberoi