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Urinary system-Blake

What are the routes for waste product elimination from the body? Respiratory system Sweat glands Digestive system Urinary system
What waste products are eliminated from the body by the respiratory system? Carbon dioxide and water vapor
What waste products are eliminated from the body by sweat glands? Water, salt, and urea
What waste products are eliminated from the body by the digestive system? Bile salts and pigments
What waste products are eliminated from the body by the urinary system? Urea, salts, water, and other soluble waste products
Functions of the kidneys? •maintain the volume and composition of plasma. •regulate water and ion levels. •acid base Balance •retain nutrients •excrete waste, toxins, and excess electrolytes •production of hormones
What hormone is produced by the kidneys and stimulates production of erythrocytes? Erythropoietin
What is renin? Enzyme; Regulates blood pressure and sodium reabsorption.
Where are the kidneys located? Retroperitoneal: located outside of peritoneal membrane that encloses abdominal cavity organs.
Which kidney is located more cranially? Right
What is the hilus? Indented area on the medial side
What is the renal pelvis? Funnel shaped area inside hilus
What is the nephron? Basic functional unit
4 parts of the nephron? Renal corpuscle Proximal convoluted tubule (pct) Loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule (dct)
Where is the renal corpuscle located? Renal cortex
What surrounds the glomerulus? Bowman's capsule
What does the glomerulus do? Filters blood in first stage of urine production to produce glomerular filtrate.
What is the proximal convoluted tubule (pct) a continuation of? Capsular space of bowman's capsule
What are the functions of the pct? Reabsorption and secretion
What is the glomerular filtrate called once it is modified by the pct? Tubular filtrate
Describe the loop of Henle? Continues from pct, descends in medulla, makes a u-turn, and heads back into cortex. Ascending wall becomes thicker again.
What does the ascending loop of Henle continue into? (Dct) distal convoluted tubule
What do the distal convoluted tubules (dct) empty into? Collecting ducts
What do the collecting ducts empty into? Renal pelvis
Which part of the nephron is the primary site of ADH action and regulation of potassium and acid-base Balance? Renal pelvis
What effect does sympathetic nervous system stimulation have on renal vessels? Causes vasoconstriction of renal vessels
Blood supply to the kidney part 1-3 1) the renal artery enters at the hilus. 2) The renal artery subdivided to become a series of afferent glomerular arterioles. 3) Afferent glomerular arterioles carry blood to the renal corpuscle.
Blood supply to the kidney part 4-6 4) glomerular capillaries filter some plasma out of the blood to produce glomerular filtrate. 5) peritubular capillaries transfer oxygen to cells of the nephron. 6) tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion occur at the level of the peritubular capill.
Where does filtration of blood occur? Renal corpuscle
What does the glomerular filtration rate (gfr) depend on? Rate of blood flow to kidney
Substances that are reabsorbed leave the tubules and enter into the blood of the _____ capillaries. Peritubular
List 9 substances that are reabsorbed by the renal tubules? Na+, k+, ca2+, mg2+, cl-, hco3-, glucose, amino acids, water.
Na+ is reabsorbed in which 3 areas of the nephron? Peritubular capillaries, ascending loop of Henle, DCT
Where are k+ and ca2+ reabsorbed in the nephron? PCT, ascending loop of Henle, DCT
What 3 things affect the movement of calcium? Vitamin D, PTH, calcitonin
Where is Mg2+ reabsorbed in the nephron? PCT, ascending loop of Henle, collecting duct.
Where does secretion primarily occur in the nephron? DCT
What determines urine volume? Amount of water contained in tubular filtrate when it reaches the renal pelvis.
What 2 hormones affect urine volume? Antidiuretic hormone (adh) and aldosterone
What happens in animals that don't have antidiuretic hormone? Polyuria
First step of regulation of blood pressure. 1) the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system responds to low blood pressure.
2nd step of regulation of blood pressure. 2)increased amounts of sodium and water are reabsorbed back into the bloodstream to increase blood volume.
3rd step of regulation of blood pressure. 3) as blood volume increases, so does blood pressure.
What are the ureters? A continuation of the renal pelvis
Where do the ureters exit the kidney? At the hilus
What are the 3 layers of the ureters? Outer fibrous layer Middle muscular layer Inner epithelial layer
How do the ureters enter the bladder? At an oblique angle
What type of epithelium lines the inner epithelial layer of the ureters?
The middle muscular layer of the ureter is made of ____ muscle and propels urine by ______? Smooth, peristalsis
What is the trigone? Arrangement of openings of ureters into bladder and opening from bladder into urethra
What type of epithelium lines the urinary bladder? Transitional epithelium
Contraction of what muscle expels urine? Detrusor muscle
Which mucked provides voluntary control over the urination process? Circular sphincter muscles
What is micturition? Explosion of urine from the urinary bladder into the urethra for elimination from the body
What is the urethra? Continuation of the neck of the bladder
What is the function of the urethra? Carries urine from bladder to the external environment.
Where is the urethra located? Runs through pelvic canal
What type of epithelium lines the female and male urethra? Transitional epithelium
What is the anatomy and function of the female urethra in comparison to the male urethra? Shorter and straighter Carrie's only urine
What is the anatomy and function of the male urethra in comparison to the female urethra? Longer and curved Carrie's urine or semen
Created by: Titanhunter556



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