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ANSC 1511: History

History of Meat Processing

YearDefinition
1490's Columbus brought Spanish Longhorns to the West Indies
1539 Desoto brought pigs to Florida
1610 Lord Delaware brought cows, oxen, and goats to the English colonies
1662 William Pynchon began packing pork in barrels with salt to ship to the West Indies and the colonies
1742 Brighton market near Boston held the first public auction, making Boston the Slaughter Center
William Underwood Company of Westwood, MA Oldest meat packing company still in business. Underwood Deviled Ham trademarked in 1870-oldest food trademark
Underwood Deviled Ham William Underwood Company- Trademarked in 1870- Oldest food trademark
1773 Benjamin Franklin proposed a more passionate slaughter method of electrical stunning
1779 First cattle trail drive from San Antonio to the Louisiana Territory
1805 First Northern Cattle drive from Ohio to the eastern U.S. also drove hogs, sheep, and turkeys to the east
Meat industry Originally located Chicago and later Cincinnati, close to the river
1818 First meat packing plant started in Cincinnati
Chicago Busiest square mile in America, Hog butcher for the world
Cincinnati Porkopolis
1821 First commercial meat canning in Boston
1831 McCormick invented the Reaper which allowed for production of meat type animals instead of draft type
1836 Steam Power reduced labor requirements in packing houses, disassembly lines started
1852-65 Railroads come to Chicago, moving stock feeding and packing west
1862 USDA and Land Grant college system were founded
1867 First shipment of frozen beef and first refrigerated rail car using ice
1883 First Oscar Meyer meat market in Chicago
1880's Mechanical refrigeration and insulated rooms came into us. Mechanical mixers, stuffers, and choppers were developed. Began using blood, bones, and meat scraps as edible and inedible byproducts instead of discarding them.
1891 First meat inspection law was passed. Authorizing voluntary inspection of livestock and meat intended for interstate and foreign commerce.
1870's-90's Meat packing spread westward from Chicago after the railroads were built
Major meat packing plants St. Paul, St. Louis, Denver, Oklahoma City, Sioux City, Omaha, Kansas City
The Union Stock Yard and Transit Co. Chicago; operated for 106 years, helped make Chicago in the hog butcher for the world.
Christmas Day in 1865 Union Stock Yards opened
July 30, 1971 @ midnight Union Stock Yards closed due to decentralization of meat packing
May 29, 1981 Union Stock Yard gate designated a National Historic Landmark
1899 Invention of smokehouse trees to move meat on rails to smokehouses
1904 Upton Sinclair, author of the Jungle, prompted meat inspection legislation
Meat Inspection Act 1906 Requires ante- and post- mortem inspection as well as product inspection
1906 Meat Inspection Act passed and predecessors to American Meat Institute and NCBA were formed
1916 Standards for meat quality grades were developed to facilitate orderly marketing
1917 U.S. entered WWI and Chicago packers canned 1.5 million pounds of meat a week for the war effort
1921 Packers and Stockyards Act was passed to protect farmers
1927 Federal Meat Grading service was started.
1934 Draught hits U.S. and takes out 3/4ths of livestock
1937 Spam introduced by Geo F. Hormel
1941 U.S. enters WWII, C Rations are developed
1960's Shift from railway to truck transport of meat, slaughter facilities moved closer to feedlots
1970's Much consumer activism for lean meat and frozen meat, Chicago closes, boxed beef use increases
1996 Meg Regs created
1998 HACCP- Hazard Analysis and Critical Control point plans created, controls pathogens