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Chapter 23

The Digestive System

the ___ digests food, breaks down into smaller fragments through lining of the blood alimentary canal
the pharynx functions in __ in the digestive system swallowing
what parts of the alimentary canal is involved in peristalsis? esophagus, stomach, small & large intestine
everything in the GI tract is composed of simple columnar tissue except for ___ which is composed of what type of tissue? mouth, esophagus, anus - stratified squamous
the __ produce a variety of secretions that helps you break down food accessory organs
the accessory organs include: teeth, tongue, gallbladder, pancreas, liver & salivary glands
processes of the digestive system. ingestion. propulsion. mechanical breakdown. digestion. absorption. defecation.
food moving through the GI tract is known as: propulsion
propulsion includes... peristalsis & swallowing
what 3 things happen in mechanical breakdown? segmentation, mixing & churning
the passage of digested end products (water, vitamins, minerals) from GI tract to blood/lymph is called... absorption
__ is the only part of the digestive process done by the large intestine... defecation
innermost layer of the alimentary wall mucosa
what is the outermost layer of the alimentary wall serosa
this layer functions in nourishment submucosa
this layer increases the surface area and is known for absorption, protection and it secretes mucous. mucosa
the mucosa is made up of what kind of tissue? epithelium. lamina propia & muscularis mucosa
the lamina propia is known for.... absorption
the epithelium tissue in the mucosa... eases food passages
this alimentary layer has a circular & longitudinal layer.. muscularis externa
parasympathetic has an impulse on the alimentary canal by.... activates peristalsis, stimulates salivation & gastric secretions
which ANS system stimulates dehydration, thickens saliva, and decreases rate of stomach emptying? sympathetic
the palatine muscles... monitor for bacteria & can activate immune response
what enzyme begins digestion in the mouth? amylase
the tongue mixes food with saliva forming it into a compact mass called bolus
the temporary storage tank where chemical proteins & food is converted to chyme is known as... the stomach
the __ controls the stomach emptying pyloric sphincter
the stomach is responsible for... mechanical breakdown, digestion (mostly protein), & secretes intrinsic factor
intrinsic factor is required for... absorption of b12
the stomach has 3 layers instead of 2 because.... it helps food get broken down into smaller fragments ramming it into the small intestine
the surface epithelium cells... secrete protective mucous
this type of cell secretes HCl & intrinsic factor which makes the stomach extremely acidic.... parietal cells
the mucous neck cell function is... unknown
this type of cell secrets pepsinogen & lipases... chief cells
the enterendocrine cells secretes... chemical messengers like histamine, gastrin, somatsin, and serotine
stimulatory events for the cephalic phase of gastric secretion consists of ... sight & thought of food and stimulation of taste & smell receptors
the inhibitory events for the cephalic phase of gastric secretion consist of... loss of appetite and depression
excesive acidity would be a ___ event of the ___ phase of gastric secretion inhibitory - gastric
rising pH activates chemo-receptors & activation of stretch receptors results in what part of the gastric secretion? stimulatory event - gastric phase
the stomach starts to stretch and empty into the duodenum in what phase... stimulatory event - intestinal
what happens in the inhibitory event of the intestinal phase? presence of fatty acids or chyme - irritant in duodenum
hepatocytes store glucose & glycogen and use amino acids to make... plasma proteins
bilrubin... gives bile its yellow color -comes from hemoglobin
bile helps remove ___ cholesterol
function of the gallbladder stores bile that's not needed immediately
the ___drains bile into duodenum via common bile duct – helps with fat absorption gallbladder
___ emulsify fats within small intestine - makes more digestible bile salts
this organ produces enzymes to break food. pancreas
this stimulates gallbladder contraction & stimulates release o pancreatic enzymes CCK
CCK is released in response to... fats & proteins in chyme
___ stimulates secretion of bicarbonate acid secretin
secretin inhibits... gastrin & gastric acid secretion
___stimulates liver cells to secret bile secretin
proteases breaks proteins into amino acid
amylases breaks down carbohydrates
nucleases breaks down nucleic acids
lipases breaks down fats
why are proteases activated in duodenum? protects pancreas from digesting itself
most digestion & absorption is done here... small intestine
the most common notion of the small intestine is... segmentation
3 division of the small intestine duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
in the small intestine, most digestion occurs here. duodenum
what division does most absorption occur in the small intestine? jejunum & ileum
structures that increase the surface area of the small intestine. circular folds, villi and microvilli
folds of the mucosa circular folds
folds of the plasma membrane microvilli
folds of the epithelium villi
this structure forces chyme through lumen slowing movement allowing time for nutrient absorption circular folds
the finger-like projections, the blood network here... villi
this include the brush-border enzymes that completes digestions of the carbohydrates & proteins... microvilli
the large intestine functions in.... producing vitamins, stores feces & completing digestion and absorption
what happens in the small intestine after a meal? segmentation - slow rate of peristalsis
what happens in between meals in the small intestine during the migrating motor complex? peristalsis sweeps contents towards large intestine - waves initiated every 90-120 min
digestion of carbohydrates begins in ... the mouth
constipation is caused by... insufficient fiber intake
the condition that rushes food residue into the large intestine is callesd diarrhea
the first movement of the large intestine known as haustral conrtractions occurs... every 30 min - slow segmenting movements
during mass movements..what occurs? mass peristalsis, low-slow contractile waves
mass movements occur ___ during or just after eating , happens 3-4 times a day
Created by: Mariahj25



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