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Cattle Unit Review

Entire Cattle Unit Review

Bovine Scientific name for cattle
Bull Uncastrated male beef/dairy animal
Steer Castrated male beef/dairy animals
Heifer Female beef/dairy animal that has not had a calf. (Usually less than 18-24 months of age)
Cow Female beef/dairy animal that has had a calf
Calf Young beef/dairy animal either male or female.
Bull Calf Young male
Heifer Calf Young Female
Stag Castrated male after puberty
Freemartin Female twin born with a bull calf, approximately 99.9% of time, sterile
Butterfat Percent of fat in the milk
Milk Production Amount in pounds of milk that a cow produces during a lactation period
Lactation Span of time that a cow is giving milk
Mammary system Parts of the cow directly responsible for producing and storing milk
Calving The act of giving birth in cattle.
Freshening The act of giving birth in dairy animals.
Ruminant A mammal whose stomach has 4 parts (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum)
Polled No horn growth
Forager Animal that eats grass and pasture
Marbling The appearance of intramuscular fat within the meat as lines through the meat layers
Cutability Quality and quantity of meat from a beef animal
Dual purpose breed A breed that serves more than one purpose, such as both a meat and dairy animals
Banding Method of castrating male livestock by using a tight rubber band placed over the testicle area to cut off circulation and cause the tissue to fall off
Branding The use of extreme heat or cold temperatures to mark the skin with a number or symbol
Castration Surgical removal of the testicals to prevent reproduction
Colostrum Antibiotics produced in the first 24 hours of the mother's milk to protect the immune system of the calf
Culled To remove from the herd
Bloat Air ingested into the stomach causing the stomach to swell
Dehorning Process of removing the horns to prevent injury to people and other animals
Displaced Abomasum Condition in cattle that causes the stomach to rotate out of place
Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) Virus in cattle causing diarrhea and respiratory signs
Brucellosis Reproductive disease of mammals passed through breeding practices
Elastrator Instrument used to stretch bands over the testicles for castration
Grass Tetany Condition in cattle due to eating rich pasture high in nitrogen gases; causes abdominal pain
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Respiratory virus affecting cattle
Ketosis Condition in dairy cattle that causes low blood sugar
Leptospirosis Bacterial disease transmitted in urine of infected animals
Mastitis Inflammation of the mammary gland
Milk Fever Low blood calcium condition called hypocalcemia
Quarters Sections of the mammary glands that store milk
Retained Placenta Reproductive condition in female animals where the afterbirth materials have not passed within eight hours after labor
Squeeze Chute Cage-like structure made of metal pipes that holds a cow and prevents the cow from kicking during restraint
Stanchion Head gate that holds the head of a cow in place during restraint
Puberty Age at which reproductive organs become functional
Estrous Cycle Repetitive cycle occurring when pregnancy does not
Estrus “Heat” or receptivity to mating
Fertilization Egg & Sperm unite
Gestation Length of time of pregnancy
Parturition Act of giving birth
Age of puberty 6-12 months
Length of Estrous Cycle 19-23 Days
Duration of Estus 12-18 hours
Gestation Length 283-285 Days
Environment, Genetics, Stage of Production, & Age of Cow Where milk comes from
Milk Components water % 87%
Milk Components lactose % 5%
Milk Components fat % 3.8%
Milk Components Caseins % 2.8%
Milk Components Albumin & Globulin % 0.7%
Milk Components Minerals/Vitamins/Enzymes 0.7%
Fluid Milk, Cream, Cheese, Butter, & Ice Cream Milk Products
Forages and roughages Cattle gain the majority of their nutritional needs from __________and other ________.
Forage Refers to grasses
Roughages Refers to other high-fiber food sources other than grasses.
The digestive system of ruminant animals starts with Mouth, Teeth, & Tongue
Rumen The organ that allows for bacterial and chemical breakdown of fiber to gain the proteins and energy from plant sources
Fermentation Vat Another name for the rumen
Rumen capacity Normal 25-30 gallons, up to 55-65 gallons
Reticulum Honeycomb-like interior surface, this part helps to remove foreign matter from the food material.
The honeycomb Another name for the reticulum
Omasum “Grinds” the food material and prepares the food material for chemical breakdown
Many plies Another name for omasum
Abomasum The true, glandular stomach very similar to the stomach of non-ruminants.
The true stomach Another name for the abomasum
Created by: gregorysk94



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