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Anthro 121 - Final

TermDefinition
Shamanic Religion Shamans are part-time religious intermediaries who act as curers
Olympic Religion Full-time religious specialists whose organizations may mimic the states and have potent anthropomorphic gods who may exist as a pantheon
Communal Religion Have Shamans, community rituals, multiple nature gods, and are more characteristic of food producers than foragers
Monotheistic Religion Have all attributes of Olympian religion except that pantheon of gods has turned into single god/ is subsumed under single eternal omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent being
Non-Individualized Spirit Spirits w/o a connection to a specific person (i.e. Leprechaun)
Individualized Spirit Connected to Individual
Why are gods considered Anthropomorphic? They resemble peoples personalities and physical characteristics
Pantheon A collective of gods
Supreme God Head dude/ Lady in charge
Attribute Gods Specialized deities associated w/ needs of the society
Creator Gods Make the world
Islam Monotheistic religion articulated by the Quran which is a book recording the word of Allah
Hinduism Polytheistic religion who follows the Trinity of Braham ; Believes in reincarnation / caste system
Buddhism Religion that = large part a rejection of Indian caste system. It stresses tolerance, humility, and compassion for all
Charismatic Authority Connection of the leader to their followers ; Connected to great founders of world religions (i.e. Moses, Jesus, Buddha, Joseph Smith, Muhammad ...)
Routine of Authority Build an emotional community / become your religious family (maybe evolutionary via group selection)
Monotheism Belief in only one god
Sacred Texts of Hinduism The Vedas or "Books of Knowledge"
3 Major Gods/Goddesses of Hinduism Brahma (The Creator), Shiva (The Destroyer), Vishnu (The Preserver)
Caste System System of social stratification
Reincarnation The soul is immortal but the body endlessly cycles to higher or lower levels of lower levels of existence, including various castes of rigid social caste
Yoga The practices/ tools used to break from habits of past lives. Includes various meditations/ physical practices
Karma Your past bad/good actions determine your progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are own God.
Four Noble Truths 1. All living beings must endure suffering 2. Suffering, which is caused by desires (for life), leads to reincarnation 3. The goal of existence = escape from suffering / endless cycle of reincarnation through Nirvana 4. Nirvana achieved by 8 fold path
Isis Egyptian Great Mother, Women held honorable position
Ishtar Worshiped in Mesopotamia as goddess to help w/ rain
Why did we burn sage before class ritual? The smoke is directed into and onto areas that are in need of protection
Major Greek Gods Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus
Why are people accused of witchcraft? They counteract socially disruptive behavior, explanation of illness, misfortune
Heresy belief/ opinion contrary to orthodox religious (especially Christian) doctrine.
Inquisition Witchcraft was seen as heresy. Seen as pact w/devil ; Repudiate Christianity
Eucharist Holy Communion, the Lord's Supper, and other names) is a Christian rite
Mechanisms of Cultural Change Discovery and Innovation
Acculturation One society possibly forcing another to : Assimilate, take in another's culture's ideas, info, etc.
Assimiliation Take in another's culture's ideas
Syncretism Attempted union of different/ opposing principles, practices, or parties, as in philosophy or religion.
diaspora Scattered population whose origin lies within a smaller geographic locale
Santeria Afro-Caribbean religion based on Yoruba beliefs and traditions, w/ some Roman Catholic elements added
Cargo cult A system of belief based around the expected arrival of ancestral spirits in ships bringing cargoes of food and other goods.
Malleus Maleficarum Treatise on prosecution of witches, written in 1486 by Heinrich Kramer, a German Catholic clergyman
Sects and Dominations A subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity
Nativistic Movements Bag gap between dominant/ subordinate cultures; Push to remove dominant; Return to Past
Revivialistic Movements Bring back golden age (i.e. hipsters)
New Religions Movements Religious movements usually come from another older religion, religious group that differs on just a few points from the mainstream religion
Created by: avantmarie