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Anesthesia

QuestionAnswer
What is anesthesia? a state of unconsciousness induced in an animal
What are the 3 goals of anesthesia? Analgesia - pain relief Immobilization Amnesia - loss of memory
Stage I of anesthesia Amnesia and analgesia
Stage II of anesthesia Delirium and lack of inhibition
Stage III of anesthesia Surgical anesthesia: characterized by progressive depression of respiration, circulation, reflexes, and muscle tone
What are the 4 planes of Stage III anesthesia? Plane 1: light anesthesia Plane 2: moderate anesthesia Plane 3: deep anesthesia Plane 4: very deep - apnea
What types of procedures/surgery are preformed under Plane 1? radiographs, suture removal, bandaging, and mass removal
What types of surgery are preformed under Plane 2? Most elective surgeries including spay and neuter
What types of surgery are preformed under Plane 3? Invasive and time consuming surgeries, body part manipulation, organ surgery, and minor orthopedics
What types of surgery are preformed under Plane 4? Very painful surgeries - amputation, hip replacements, orthopedics The animal stops breathing on their own - you need to breathe for them (manual or mechanical)
Stage IV of anesthesia Pre-mortem: between apnea and circulatory collapse (heart collapses and blood stops circulating)
General considerations for anesthesia Every species has different anatomy and physiology Some species are rarely used - need to research Size of species vs. metabolism
Metabolism and anesthesia Small animal=fast metabolism Need to know how fast certain drug are eliminated from the body
What are factors that cannot be assessed from a distance when dealing with animals? Nutrition, disease, infection, parasite load, estrus, pregnancy, lactation
Why is knowing parasite load important for anesthesia? Parasites feed on blood; low blood volume affects how drugs work
Why is knowing if the animal is in estrus important for anesthesia? High levels of estrogen affect how drugs work
Why is knowing if the animal is lactating important for anesthesia? Anything that mom gets will be passed on to her offspring
What are important techniques that should be used during anesthesia? Knowing accurate body weight; minimizing stress; withholding feed; intubation; assist respiration; maintain body temp; IV catheters; monitor cardiovascular function; monitor reflexes; muscle tone
Why is knowing the patients accurate body weight important? Need to be able to dose correctly and safely
Why is minimizing stress important? Stress changes the body's metabolism and will affect they way the patient responds to the anesthesia
Why is it important to withhold feed if an animal is going under anesthesia? To prevent vomiting and aspiration pneumonia
How long should animals be fasted? Large animals (cat or larger) 12 hours; small animals 2 hours; Rodents not necessary; Rabbits not recommended
Why is it not recommended to fast Rabbits? Their intestines can stop moving = illius
Why is it important to maintain accurate body temperature while the animal is under anesthesia? Cold animals do not wake up from anesthesia; temperature affects metabolism; animals cannot shiver while under anesthesia
Why is it important to use IV catheters during anesthesia? To administer supplemental fluids to correct for blood loss or dehydration; 3 times the volume of blood lost
Fluid administration during anesthesia 10mL/kg/hr dogs: first hour is 10mL/kg/hr then 5mL/kg/hr cats: 5mL/kg/hr
How do you monitor cardiovascular function during anesthesia? MM color and CRT=PINK!!! Manual heart rate and rhythm; pulse rate; pulse pressure; blood pressure; ECG
How can you monitor the patient's reflexes? Palpebral; corneal; toe-pinch
What cranial nerves are being used during a palpebral reflex? V for sensory and VII for blinking
What is a corneal reflex and what cranial nerves are involved? Physically touch the eye and it will retract into the skull and the animal will blink; V & VII; if the animal is too deep under anesthesia they will not blink
What cranial nerve is used for jaw tone? V
What is a major concern that must be considered when figuring out dosages and concentrations of drugs to use? THE SIZE OF THE ANIMAL; Size of rabbit or larger you can use the prepared concentration; if smaller than a rabbit you may need to dilute the drug
What are considerations to remember when a rabbit is under anesthesia? Easily frightened; difficult to intubate; in dorsal recumbency the abdominal viscera will interfere with diaphragm movement; Rabbit needs to be in lateral recumbency during surgery
What are considerations to remember when a guinea pig is under anesthesia? Difficult to intubate, soft palate is continuous with the base of the tongue (the glottis cannot be visualized); small opening=palatal ostium; large cecum 65% GI contents
Created by: jenn.messier11