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World History 1 SOL

World History 1 SOL Reivew

Humans emerged from what what continent? Africa
Humans emerged from Africa how many years ago? 100,000 - 400,000 years ago
What did early humans survival depend upon? Availability of wild plants and animals
People who travel from place to place in search of food are called? Nomads
What does Neolithic stand for? New Stone Age
Scientitst who study past cultures by locating and analyzing human remains, fossils, and artifacts are call? Archaeologists
Scientits can use tests to date and analyze fossils and artifacts. What is this called? Carbon Dating
What did Neolithic Era societies do? Developed agriculture, domesticated animals, used advanced tools, made pottery, developed weaving skills
What was the Neolithic Agriculture Revolution? People stopped hunting and gathering and started planting food.
What is an example of an archaeological site in England that was begun during the Neolithic Age and Completed during the Bronze Age? Stonehenge
What does Paleolithic Era stand for? Old Stone Age
What are characteristics of hunter-gather societies? nomadic, invented tools and simple weapons, learned how to make fire, lived in clans, developed oral language, created Cave-art
What did early civilizations start around/near? Rivers
What do rivers give to civilizations? Water and rich ferticle soil for crops
What are river valleys also called? Cradles of Civilization
What type of religion did most early civilizations practice polytheism
The belief in many gods is called polytheism
What River is the Egyptian Civilization centered around? Nile River
What River is the Mesopotamian Civilization centered around? Tigris and Euphrates River
What is the land between two Rivers called? Mesopotamia / Fertile Crecsent
What River is the Chinese Civilization centered around? Huang - He River / Yellow River
People who specialize in a certian craft are called? Artisans
Which was the first group of people to practice Monotheism? Hebrews
What is Monotheism? Belief in One God
Who is the founder of Judaism? Abraham
Who led the Hebrew people out of slavery in Egypt? Moses
What city is important to the Jews? Jerusalem
Where is the written records and beliefs of the Hebrews Recorded? Torah
What is the moral and religious conduct for the Jews? 10 Commandments
Who wrote in Hieroglyphics? Egyptians
Who wrote in cuneiform? Sumerians
Who wrote in Sanskrit Indo-Ayrans
Who created the alphabet? Phoenicians
Which group was tolerant of those they conquered, build roads, and had Zoroastrianism and an imperial bureaucray? Persians
What two Mountains made the invasion of India difficult? Himalayas and the Hindu Kush
How did Indo-Ayrans enter into India? Throught the Kyber Pass
What two Rivers were important in India? Indus River and the Ganges River
What rigid class system did the Indo-Aryans set up? Caste System
What Empire in India contributed mathematics, new textiles, and literature? They ruled during the Golden Age of India. Gupta Empire
What is the cycle of rebirth? Reincarnation
Future reincarnation based on presnet behavior is called? Karma
In Hinduism the duty in ones life is called? Dharma
What are the sacred writings of Hinduism? Vedas and the Upanishads
Which religion had many forms of one major diety? Hinduism
How do you get to Nirvana in Hinduism? Follow your Dharma, have good Karma, move up in the Caste System, and ultimatly understand the Maya (illusion of the world).
Who is the founder of Buddhism? Siddhartha Gautama
How do you achieve Nirvana in Buddhism? Follow the Four Noble Truths and the Eight Fold Path
Who sends out missionaries to spread Buddhism to China and other parts of Asia? Asoka
What from Hinduism is not associated with Buddhism? The Caste System
Why was the Great Wall of China built? To keep out invaders from the North. Isolate China
Who built the Great Wall of China? Qin Shi Huangdi
A line of rulers all in the same family is called what? Dynasty
How did Chinese rulers believed they received the right to rul? Mandate of Heaven
What trade route connected China to the Mediterranean Sea? The Silk Road
What products did China contribute to the world? paper, porcelain, and silk
What system of obtaining jobs did the Chinese create? The Civil Service System
What is a Civil Service System Taking tests to get a job. People working for the government and having to qualify.
Belief that humans are good, respect for elders, code of politeness, emphasis on education, and ancestor worship are from what Chinese philosophy? Confuciansim
Who created the Chinese philosophy of Confucianism? Confucius
Humility, simple life and inner peace, and harmony with nature are characteristics or what Chinese philosophy? Taoism/ Daoism
Who created Daoism Laozi
What is the symbol in China that represents the opposite forces in Confucianism and Taoism? Yin and Yang
Which religion spread to China, Korea, and Japan? Buddhism
Which philosophy was known for strictness and harsh punishments? Legalism
Classical Greece was centered on which water body? Aegean Sea
What peninsula is Greece on? Balkan Peninsula
What are the two most important city states in Greece? Sparta and Athens
Who did Athens and Sparta team up to defeat? Persians
What city did the Greeks try to defeat during the Trojan war? Troy
Where is Troy located Asia Minor
What physical feature helped create separate city states in Greece? Mountains
Why did the Greeks have to create colonies to grow food? Greece had rocky infertile soil and Greece was overpopulated
What religion did the ancient Greeks have? Polytheism based on Mythology
Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Artemis, Athena, and Aphrodite are gods and goddesses from which civilization? Greece
What is the Greek word for city-state? Polis
Who were citizens in Athens? Adult males who were free and born in Athens
Who did not have rights in Athens? Women, foreigners, and slaves
What are the stages of Government in Athens? Monarchy, aristocracy, tyranny, democracy
What two tyrants worked for reform in Athens? Draco and Solon
Draconian laws are named after who? Draco for being mean laws
All citizens could participate in Athenian government. What type of government is this? Direct Democracy
What type of government did Sparta have? Oligarchy
A government ruled by the few is? Oligarchy
Which city-state was known for is militaristic and aggressive society? Sparta
What was the importance of the Persian Wars? Sparta and Athens team up to defeat the Persians
Who was the Persian Wars between? Sparta + Athens vs. Persians
Name two important battles during the Persian Wars? Marathon and Salamis
Who won the Persian Wars? The Greeks
During the Peloponnesian War, what were the Greeks fighting over? competition for control of the Greek world
What league did the Athenians create? Delian League
What league did the Spartans create? Peloponnesian League
Who was fighting during the Peloponnesian War? Sparta vs. Athens
Who won the Peloponnesian War? Sparta
Who was the great leader of Athens? Pericles
How did Pericles die? From the plague in Athens
How did the Spartans win the Peloponnesian war? Cut off the supply line to the city of Athens
What did Pericles do after the war? Rebuilt the city
What did Pericles spend Delian League money to create? The Parthenon
Where is the Parthenon? On the Acropolis in Athens
What is the Parthenon? Temple to Athena
In Greek culture what are Aeschylus and Sophocles known for? Drama
In Greek culture what is Homer known for? Poetry
In Greek culture what are Herodotus and Thucydides known for? History
In Greek culture what are Archimedes and Hippocrates known for? Science
In Greek culture what are Euclid and Pythagoras known for? Mathematics
In Greek culture what are Socrates, Plato Aristotle known for? SPA Philosophy
What are the three types of greek columns? Doric, Ionian, and Corinthian
Who conquered much of Greece after being capture and held hostage for many years in Greece? Philip II of Macedon
Who is Philip II of Macedon's son? Alexander the Great
What did Alexander the Great spread as he conquered lands in the middle east and Asia? Hellenistic Culture
What is Hellenistic Culture? Combination of Greek and Asian Culture
Where is Rome located? Italian Peninsula
What was Roman Mythology based on? Greek religion
What three things did Roman Mythology help to explain? Natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events
Juno, Jupiter, Apollo, Diana, Minerva, and Venus are gods from which civilization? Roman
What were the three social classes in Ancient Rome? Patricians, Plebians, and Slaves
What was the name given to the powerful nobles in Rome? Patricians
What was the name given to the majority of the population in Rome? Plebeians
Who could be a citizen in Rome? Patricians, Plebians, and selected foreigners
Name the three stages of government in Rome. Kingdom, Republic, Empire
Name the three branches of government in the Roman Republic. Assembly, Senate, Magistrates
Roman Law was codified and placed in the Forum for all to see. The codified Roman laws were called the... Twelve Tables
Rome and Carthage were in competition for trade in the Mediterranean Basin. What are the wars called between Rome and Carthage? The Punic Wars
What was the name of the famous general from Carthage that attacked the Italian Peninsula with Elephants? Hannibal
What was the outcome of the Punic Wars? Rome was victorious.Carthage was utterly destroyed.
What were the causes for the decline of the Roman Republic? Migration of farmers to cities, unemployment, Civil war over the power of Julius Caesar, devaluation of Roman currency
Who was in the first Triumvirate? Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus
After Julius Caesar took control pf Rome as Dictator for Life he died shortly after, how? assassinated by members of the Senate
Who was the first emperor of Rome? Augustus Caesar
WHo did Augustus Caesaer have a civil war against in order to seize power over Rome? Marc Anthony
What was the 200 years of peace and prosperity for Rome called? Pax Romana
What was the social impact of the Pax Romana returned stability to social classes and increased emphasis on family
What was the economic impact of the Pax Romana? Established uniform system of money, expanded trade, guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman roads, and promoted prosperity and stability
What was the political impact of the Pax Romana? created civili service and developed a uniform rule of law
Christianity has its roots in what religion? Judaism
Who was the originator and leader of Christianity? Jesus of Nazareth
What typr of religion is Christianity? monotheistic
How was Christianity spread? the Apostles, including Paul, spread Christianity throughout Rome.
Which emperor legalized Christianity in Rome? Constantine
Whaere was the capital of Rome relocated to? Constantinople
Why was Rome's capital relocted to Constantinople? Protection of the eastern frontier, removed from Germanic tribe invasions, crossroads of trade, Easily fortified and defendable site on a peninsula with a natural harbor.
After the fall of Western Rome, what was the Eastern Empire called? Byzantine Empire
What knowledge was saved and preserved by the Byzantine Empire? Greco-Roman culture
What was Emperor Justinian responsible for? Codification of Roman Law (Justinian's Code), Reconquest of former Roman lands,and Expansion of trade
What is the name of the large domed church built by Justinian? Hagia Sophia
What caused the division of the Christian Church? Disagreement over the authority of the Pope. Also the Iconoclastic controversy.
Where was the Eastern Orthodox Church centered? Constantinople
Where was the Roman Catholic Church centered? Rome
What language did the Eastern Orthodox Church use? Greek
What language did the Roman Catholic Church use? Latin
How did the Byzantine Culture influence Eastern Europe and Russia? Trade routes to the Black Sea and the Blatic Sea, adoption of Eastern Orthodox Christianity by Eastern Europe and Russia, Cyrillic Alphabet, Church art and architecture.
WHo was the founder of Islam? Muhammad
Where did Islam begin? Arabian Peninsula, Mecca
What religion stretched from Southern Asia, through Northern Africa to Southern Spain? Islam
Islam is what type of religion? monotheistic
What is the name of the holy book for Islam? Koran
What are the funda mental principles of Islam called? the Five Pillars of Islam
What two religions did Islam accept, calling them people pf the book? Hebrews (Jews) and Christians
What is the language of Islam that was also used as a language of trade? Arabic
What are the two main groups in Islam? Sunni and Shi'a
The Muslims that invaded Spain were stopped from advancing further into Europe by losing what battle? Battle of Tours
What were the scientific contributions of the Islamic culture? Arabian numbers (adapted from India), Algebra, Midicine, and expansion of Geographic knowledge
What shaped the ideals of daily life in Medieval Europe? Christian Beliefs, Classic Roman Heritage, Germanic Customs
What became the unifying force in Europe after the fall of Rome? Roman Catholic Church
Monasteries preserved what culture? Greco Roman Culture
Who was appoint Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope in 800 C.E.? Charlemagne
Grant of land given to a vassal from a lord? Fief
Person granted land from a lord in return for services. Vassal
Peasents who were bound to the land where they worked for a lord. Serfs
Political system of local government based on granting of land in return for loyalty, military assistance, and other services. Feudalism
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around a self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared land. Manor System`
What Germanic tribe emerged in Europe as a dominate force? The Franks
Under Charlemagne what culture went through a revival? Roman Culture
What Germanic tribes settled in England? Angles and Saxons
What tribe settled in present day Hungary? Magyars
What tribe traded with Russia and settled in Scandinavia and later norther France? Vikings
What system became strengthened because of constant barbarian raids? Feudalism
What trade route went from China to the Mediterranean Basin? The Silk Road
What Sea trade route went from the Mediterranean Basin around Africa and into the Indian Ocean? The Maritime Routes to teh Indian Ocean
What trade route crossed the Northen Area of Africa? Trans-Saharan Trade Route
What tradeEurope with the City of Constantinople and the Mediterreanean Basin? Norther Europe links with the Black Sea.
What trade route was located in Western Europe? Western European river and Sea trade
Name the nautical trade route located in the vicinity of East and south China. South China Sea and lands of Southeast Asia Trade Route
What good was traded from West Africa? Gold
Where could a trader find spices? The lands around the Indian Ocean
What areas were known for producing textiles? India, China, Middle East, and Europe
What areas were known porcelain producers? China and Persia
What civilization created paper? China
Water Wheels and Windmills were invented by whom? India
Which civilization invented the compass? China
What area saw the invention of the lateen sail? the Indian Ocean
What religion spread from India to China to Korea and finally Japan? Buddhism
What if the name of a group of islands? Archipelago
Chinese writing, architecture, and religion influenced what Asian civilization? Japan
What Japanses rel;igion places importance on natural features , forces of nature, ancestors, and emperor worshipping? Shintoism
What civilization is located on the Yucatan Oeninsula in Central AMerica? Mayan Civilization
What was the name of the city where the great Mayan observatory was located? Chichen Itza'
What was Mayan economy based on? trade and agriculture
what type of religion did the Mayans have? Polytheistic
What civilization was located in present day central Mexico? Aztec
What was the capital city of the Aztec Empire? Tenochitilan
What was the economy of the Aztecs based on? Agriculture
What type of religion did the Aztec civilization have? Polytheistic religion , based on warfare
What ancient civilization was located in the Andes mountains of South America? Incas
What was the name of the great temple city of the Incas? Machu Picchu
What was the Incan economy based on? High-altitude agriculture
What type of a religion did the Incans practice? Polytheistic
What engineering feat did the Incans build in order to connect their civilization? A road system
What were some of the achievments of the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incans? CalendarsMathematicsWriting systems
Defeated the Anglo-Saxon army and became king of England William the Conqueror
Started Common Law under his rule. Henry II
Signed the Magna Carta; limiting the king's power King John
Defining England as a country, what war was fought between England and France? Hundred Years' War
Established the French Throne in Paris, and his dynasty gradually expanded control over most of France Hugh Capet
Defining France as a country, this war was fought between France and England Hundred Years' War
Fench girl who leads the armies during the Hundred Years' War; burned at the stake for heresey Joan of Arc
Their marriage untied the two kingdoms of Spain. Also responsible for driving the Muslims out of Spain Ferdinand and Isabella
Expanded the Spanish empire in the Western hemisphere Philip II
Russian leader who threw off the rule of the Mongols, centralized power in Moscow, and expanded the Russian Nation Ivan III (The Great)
Power was centralised in the hands of the leader of Russia, also called a... Tsar
What religion influenced the unification of Rusiia Orthodox Churc
Told the Christians that if they died during the Crusades their sins would be forgiven Pope Urban
What city was captured during the First Crusade? Jerusalem
What Muslim leader was able to recapture Jerusalme from the Crusaders? Saladin
During the Crusades the city of Comnstantinople was sacked and looted by whom? The Christians Crusaders
What were the effects of the Crusades Weakened the Pope's authority. Stimulated trade between Europe and Asia. Increased religious intolerance between Muslims, Christians, and JewsWeakened the Byzantine Empire
This barbarian tribe invaded Russia and China while destroyng cities and the countyside Mongols
Who defeated the Byzantine Empire and took control of Constantinople in 1453? The Ottoman Turks
How did the Black Death influence European society? Population decline, Scarcity of Labor, Towns freed from feudal obligations, decl;ine of Church influence, Disruption of trade
During the Middle Ages most people who could read and write were usually Church Scholars
Church scholars would most likely be found living in these communities... Monasteries
What is credit? Buying now, paying later
What is usury? Charging interest on loans.
Where did the Renaissance begin? Italy
Where was the Northern Renaissance? The rest of Northern Europe
Why did Italian cities become rich? They became prosperous because of trade. Their location on the Mediterranean Sea, made port cities rich.
What book did Machiavelli write? The Prince
What did the book 'The Prince' describe? An early treatise on government, supported absolute power by the ruler, supports the idea of the ends justify the means, and advises that one should go good if possible, but evil when necessary.
Medieval art and literature focused on? Church and Salvation
Renaissance art focused on? Individuals, worldly matters, and Christianity
Who painted the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper Leonardo da Vinci
Who painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and the statue The David Michelangelo
Who wrote love sonnets to 'Laura' and was a humanist scholar? Petrarch
What was Humanism? celebrated the individual, stiulated the study of Greek and Roman literature and culutre, was supported by wealthy patrons
What is a patron? Someone who gives money to support the arts
Who merged humanist ideas with Christianity? Nothern Renaissance thinkers
Who invented the printing press? Gutenberg
Who wrote 'The Praise of Folly'? Erasmus
Who wrote 'Utopia'? Sir Thomas More
Who wrote in Cuneiform? Sumerians
Who wrote in Sanscrit? Indo-Aryans
Who wrote in Calligraphy? Chinese
Who wrote in Linear A/B? Crete and early Greeks
What two physical features make invasion difficult? Mountains and Seas
Which Chinese dynasty practiced legalism? Qin Dynasty
Created by: kirsche



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