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Leukocytes

202 - Lec 2: Leukocytes

QuestionAnswer
WHAT IS LEUKOCYTOSIS? increase in total population of white blood cell count
WHAT IS LEUKOPENIA? decrease in total population of white blood cell count
NEUTROPHIL MORPHOLOGY • Size 12-15 microns 2-2.5 x diameter of RBC • Nucleus Lobulated or partially segmented Fine granules • Cytoplasm Pale pink or light blue
HETEROPHILS = NEUTROPHILS o Found in reptiles, rabbits, birds & guinea pigs** o Granules are very prominent (red or blue or mixed)
TOXIC NEUTROPHILS SHOW UP FROM? - Severe inflammatory disease or toxemia
TOXIC NEUTROPHILS MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES Diffuse cytoplasmic basophilia (stains blue); Foamy vacuolation of the cytoplasm (looks like bubbles); Dohle bodies (greyish/purple ovals - remnants of RNA that remain in cytoplasm after cell matures); Abnormal nuclear shape- like connecting blobs
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF A NEUTROPHIL? o Defend the body against antigens/bacteria/foreign bodies o Accumulate at sites of inflammation o Phagocytic (eat cells) and microbicidal (kills cells)
WHAT IS THE LIFE CYCLE OF A NEUTROPHIL? o Myloid cell = produced in bone marrow o Circulate in blood stream for ~8-10 hours o Leave blood vessels and migrate into the tissue spaces where they clean things up o Lifespan in tissues is 1-4 days before death
WHAT IS NEUTROPHILIA? o Increased number of neutrophils o Most frequent cause of leukocytosis o May be physiological or pathological Physiological: normal body process Pathological: infection
RATIO OF NEUTROPHILS TO LYMPHOCYTES 1:1 in horse 3.5:1 in dog/cat 0.5:1 in ruminants 0.7:1 in pigs reversal indicates something is wrong**
MECHANISMS FOR NEUTROPHILIA • Epinephrine release – causes spleen to contract and release neutrophils • Corticosteroids or stress • Acute or chronic inflammation
WHAT IS NEUTROPENIA? o Decreased number of neutrophils o Most frequent cause of leukopenia
MECHANISMS FOR NEUTROPENIA • Acute demand or consumption in tissues • Decreased production in marrow • Ineffective granulopoiesis • Increased margination – cells are not circulating
WHAT ARE BAND CELLS? - immature neutrophils - “C” or “S” shaped nucleus (not segmented) - Cytoplasm – blue; has fragments of RNA - indicates a bad thing
WHAT IS LEFT SHIFT? - increase in # of band cells - Indicated band cell # is higher than it should be
WHAT IS DEGENERATIVE LEFT SHIFT? there are more band cells than neutrophils
LYMPHOCYTE MORPHOLOGY • Size 9-12 microns 1.5-2 x diameter of RBC • Nucleus Round, eccentric (off to one side) • Cytoplasm Scant rim of pale blue (very little)
LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION o Immune response o Can be either: B-cells – deals with humoral (in circulation) immunity T-cells – deals with cellular (directed at specific cell types) immunity Memory cells (can be B or T-memory cells) to remember an antigen
LYMPHOCYTE LIFE CYCLE Myloid – created in bone marrow then go to bursa (in bird), or thymus for maturation; Bursa – B-cell; Thymus – T-cell Generally remain in vascular system May survive for months to years
LYMPHOCYTE CIRCULATION • Blood -> Lymph nodes -> Lymph -> Blood • Transit time is ~8-12 hours from Blood to Blood
WHAT IS LYMPHOCYTOSIS AND THE MECHANISMS FOR IT? - Increased number of lymphocytes - Mechanisms: Excitement (shown only in cats and young horses) Antigenic stimulation Lymphosarcoma (malignant cancer & same as lymphoma) or lymphocytic leukemia
WHAT IS LYMPHOPENIA AND THE MECHANISMS FOR IT? - Decrease in the number of lymphocytes - Mechanisms: Glucocorticoids Disruption of lymphatic circulation Lymphosarcoma
MONOCYTE MORPHOLOGY • Size Large cells 15-20 microns 3-5 x diameter of RBC • Nucleus Irregular shape • Cytoplasm Abundant & blue to blue-grey in color Normal monocytes have a smooth cytoplasm border
MONOCYTES: FRESH BLOOD VS. EDTA o EDTA causes vacuolation in monocyte o EDTA causes seudopods on the border of the cytoplasm
MONOCYTE FUNCTION o Main function is phagocytosis = eat dead cells and tissues o Regulation of inflammatory response o Responsible for antigen processing = makes antigen more recognizable for the immune system to recognize
MONOCYTE LIFE CYCLE o Myloid – originate in bone marrow o Released into blood as immature cells o Transported into tissues -> macrophages
WHAT IS MONOCYTOSIS AND THE MECHANISMS FOR IT? o Increased number of monocytes o Mechanisms: Inflammation Demand for phagocytosis Tissue necrosis – eat the dead tissue Glucocorticoids/steroids
WHAT IS MONOCYTOPENIA? o Decreased number of monocytes o Not clinically recognized in animals
EOSINOPHIL MORPHOLOGY • Size 12-20 microns about size of neutrophil • Nucleus Lobulated or partially segmented • Cytoplasm Different granules (red) for species • Canine: round granules • Feline: rod-shaped (linier) • Equine: large round
EOSINOPHIL FUNCTION o Major role in destruction of parasites o Limited phagocytic and bactericidal activity o May play a role in destroying neoplastic (cancer) cells
EOSINOPHIL LIFE CYCLE o Myloid o Circulate in blood for a few hours o Migration into tissue spaces and never go back o Lifespan in tissues is several days to several weeks
WHAT IS EOSINOPHILIA AND THE MECHANISMS FOR IT? o Increase in the number of eosinophils o Mechanisms: 3 W’s Worms (all parasites) Wheezes (allergies) Weird diseases
WHAT IS EOSINOPENIA AND THE MECHANISMS FOR IT? o Reduction in the number of eosinophils o Mechanisms: Glucocorticoids – stress
WHAT IS A STRESS LEUKOGRAM? -Endogenous (produced within body) steroid release or treatment with exogenous corticosteroids -Lymphopenia is the most consistent change -Mature neutrophilia is usually present -Monocytosis and eosinopenia are expected changes but are more variable
BASOPHIL MORPHOLOGY • Size 12-20 microns • Nucleus Lobulated or partially segmented • Cytoplasm Light purple or grey Granules (same shade of nucleus color) • Most species – dark purple • Feline – lavender
BASOPHIL FUNCTION o Hypersensitivity reactions o Inflammation
BASOPHIL LIFE CYCLE o Myloid o Share a common progenitor (stem) cell with mast cells o Circulate in blood for a few hours o Migrate to tissue and do not go back (unidirectional) o Lifespan in tissues is several weeks
WHAT IS BASOPHILIA AND THE MECHANISMS FOR IT? o Increase in basophils o Mechanisms: Allergies, parasites (Dirofilaria immitis – heart worm)
WHAT IS BASOPENIA? o Decreased number of basophils o Not clinically recognized
MAST CELL MORPHOLOGY • Size Similar to basophil • Nucleus Round to oval Central to eccentric location • Cytoplasm Numerous small round, dark purple granules that may obscure the nucleus
MAST CELL TUMORS o Looks like other tumors o Looks benign on the skin o Has histamine in the granules – gets larger when the cells de-granulates and tumor keeps growing (spreads) o Anti-histamine before surgery
Created by: jenn.messier11