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Hematology & Erythro

202 - Lec 1: Hematology & Erythropoiesis

QuestionAnswer
WHAT IS HEMATOLOGY? the study of blood
WHAT IS ERYTHROPOIESIS? the creation of red blood cells (RBC)
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD? - Connective tissue - Transport of gasses, nutrients, metabolic waste products, cells, hormones; Helps maintain body temp and pH levels; Protective/defensive function – forms clots (hemostasis) and prevents infection
WHAT IS BLOOD? - Blood Volume ~7% of body weight (70ml/kg of body weight) in most animals; Cats ~4% of BW - Formed Elements (~40%) = cellular content of blood ; RBC, WBC, Platelets - Plasma (~60%) = liquid fraction of blood; fluid in which the cells are suspended
WHAT IS PLASMA? Water ~91-92%; Protein ~7-8%; Other Solutes ~1-2% (Electrolytes, magnesium, sodium, potassium, non-protein nitrogenous waste = urea and creatanine & uric acid in some species) Nutrients: lipids, glucose, amino acids; O, CO2, N; hormones and enzymes
WHAT IS SERUM? Serum = plasma minus fibrinogen (largest protein, made in liver, main purpose to clot blood)
WHAT PROTEINS ARE FOUND IN BLOOD? • Globulins (proteins) also found in blood Aka antibodies or immunoglobulin’s • Albumin (protein) also found in blood Made in liver and function to maintain oncotic pressure Smallest protein
WHAT ARE THE FORMED ELEMENTS OF BLOOD? • Erythrocytes (RBC) Transports O & CO2 Work exclusively in the vascular system • Leukocytes (WBC) Defense Mainly outside the vascular system • Thrombocytes (cells that cause clots/platelets) Hemostasis = to clot
ROMANOWSKY STAINS o Acid Stain – bind to basic compounds (stains it red) o Basic Stain – stain acidic structures (stains it blue)
HEMATOPOIESIS Yolk Sac (creation of blood begins here in fetal development in uterus), Liver (2/3 RBC created here), Spleen, Bone Marrow
BONE MARROW primary site for hematopoiesis at birth and prenatal life; rapid growth places a heavy demand for RBC; as demand for RBC decreases as animal ages, hematopoiesis moves from the appendicular (long bones, appendages) to the axial (flat bones)skeleton
PLURIPOTENTIAL STEM CELL stem cell that can turn into any cell
MEGAKARYOCYTOPOIESIS creation of megakaryocytes (precursor to platelets)
GRANULOPOIESIS creation of granulocytes
LYMPHOPOIESIS creation of lymphocytes
HOW DOES ERYTHROPOIESIS OCCUR? Decreased Arterial PO2 -> Renal Hypoxia -> Kidney -> Erythropoietin (hormone to stimulate bone marrow to produce RBC) Secretion -> Bone Marrow -> Increased RBC Mass
WHAT IS THE LIFE CYCLE OF A RBC? 90-120 DAYS
PRODUCTION OF RBC - 5 days o Nucleus becomes smaller (blue) o Chromatin pattern becomes more aggregated (pyknotic = non functional nucleus) o Cytoplasm changes from blue to orange Decrease in RNA Increase in hemoglobin to carry more oxygen
FIRST STAGE OF RBC DEVELOPMENT: RUBRIBLAST o First morphologically identifiable erythroid precursor in the RBC line o Very basophilic cytoplasm o Round nucleus o Loose chromatin pattern o Generally single nucleus
SECOND STAGE OF RBC DEVELOPMENT: PRORUBRICYTE o Similar to Rubriblast o Slightly smaller that rubriblast o Very blue cytoplasm o Round nucleus o No identifiable nucleolus
THIRD STAGE OF RBC DEVELOPMENT: RUBRICYTE o Round cells o Generally centrally located o Round nucleus o Chromatin patterns are condensing o Last cell that can divide mitotically and most mature cell precursor that retains the ability to divide
FOURTH STAGE OF RBC DEVELOPMENT: METARUBRICYTE o Round cell o Round, dense to completely pyknotic nucleus o Sometimes eccentrically located nucleus o Cytoplasm starts to be polychromatophilic (pale blue to orange) o Can no longer divide, can only mature
FIFTH STAGE OF RBC DEVELOPMENT: POLYCHROMATOPHILIC ERYTHROCYTE o Anucleated cell o Polychromatophilic cytoplasm (likes many colors) o Identified as a “reticulocyte” if stained with New Methylene Blue
SIXTH STAGE OF RBC DEVELOPMENT: ERYTHROCYTE - mature RBC o Anucleated cell o Red to orange cytoplasm o No intracytoplasmic organelles o Essentially only hemoglobin (oxygen)
WHAT IS A RETICULOCYTE? -Cats have aggregate or punctate reticulocytes; all other species have aggregated reticulocytes - ~1% of dog & cat cells are reticulocytes - Horses do not circulate reticulocytes - Ruminants only circulate reticulocytes when they are severely anemic
ERYTHROCYTE MORPHOLOGY IN MAMMALS - Anucleated, biconcave disks, Diameter 4-9micrometers Goats have the smallest cell size Distinct central pallor: Dogs have the most distinct in their blood; Cats have more roundness in their cells so they have a less distinct
WHAT IS ANISOCYTOSIS? - not having equal sized cells - mammals have this
WHAT IS ROULEAUX FORMATION? - “stacking” of cells = indicates higher protein • Horses have the greatest degree of Rouleaux (not due to protein) • Rouleaux is not found in Bovine
SPECIES VARIATIONS FOR SHAPE OF RBC • Angora Goats have spindle form and fusiform shapes to RBC • Birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish have elliptical and nucleated RBC • Camelidae have elliptical but non nucleated RBC • Deer have sickle shaped RBC
WHAT IS THE MAIN FUNCTION OF AN ERYTHROCYTE? carry hemoglobin for the transport of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide
Created by: jenn.messier11