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LAT Certification

Chapter 13

QuestionAnswer
What are the requirements for aseptic surgery? Sterile instruments, Sterile and clean garb donned by the surgical team, aseptic preparation of the surgical site of the animal
What are the three periods of surgery? Preoperative (prior to operation), Intraoperative (during the operation), Postoperative (following the operation); all together perioperative period
Define surgical field Incision site plus adjacent areas on the animal, sterile drapes lying over the animal and table, and portions of the surgeon's sterile gown
Define sterility State in which there are no living microorganisms present
Define asepsis free of pathogenic microorganisms
Define antiseptics Substances that destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms, but do not sterilize-can be used on living tissue
Define disinfectants Destroy or inhibits growth of microorganisms but also do not sterilize. Usually toxic to living tissue and used on surfaces such as cages, floors, walls and tables
Define contamination Process by which something is rendered unclean or nonsterile
What is aseptic technique? The act of preventing contamination of the sterile surgical field and other sterile areas.
What is survival surgery? Surgical procedures where the animal is expected to recover from anesthesia
What is non-survival surgery? The animal is euthanized at the end of the surgical procedure while it is still under anesthesia.
What are some procedures for preventing contamination? Cleaning and disinfecting the operating room; cleaning and sterilizing surgical instruments; preparing the incision site; preparing the surgical team
What makes up appropriate surgical garb? Sterile gown or lab coat, sterile gloves, shoe covers, a cap, a beard cover (if applicable), a surgical mask
What are some other precautions for maintaining a sterile field? Never turn back to sterile surface; never place sterile instruments below edge of surgical table; keep all sterile surfaces dry; avoid excessive movement in surgical area
Why are rodents and rabbits typically not fasted prior to surgery? These species do not vomit
Where should surgical preparation of the animal take place? An area away from the surgery table to avoid having dirt or fur enter the surgical area
What are some examples of heating devices used during surgery? Circulating warm water pad, forced warm air blankets, infrared warming pad
Describe the steps of the aseptic prep of the animal? Apply a surgical antiseptic detergent to the incision and scrub with a gauze sponge-start in the center and work outward in a circle; apply 70% ethyl alcohol to remove remaining detergent-repeat process 3x; paint or spray the skin with antiseptic, dry
What should a surgeon wear prior to starting the surgical scrub? A surgical cap and mask; a beard cover (if applicable); shoe covers
What does the surgical scrub consist of? The mechanical and chemical removal of bacteria from the skin of the hands and arms using a sterile surgical hand brush and an antiseptic detergent lathered with water
How many brush strokes for each finger during scrub? 10 brush strokes on each surface, 40 total for each finger
How many brush strokes for the fingernails and both surfaces of the hands? 20 each
How many brush strokes for each surface of the arm? 10 each, 40 total for the arm
What is the basic idea for sterile gowning? Bare fingers should never touch the outside of the gown or the gloves
Define anesthesia The loss of feeling or sensation
What is general anesthesia? The state of unconsciousness in which the central nervous system does not perceive pain and has no conscious awareness
What is local anesthesia? The loss of sensation only occurs in a specific part of the body and the animal remains conscious and in control of body movements
What are the typical routes for local anesthetics? Injection or topical application
What are the typical routes for general anesthetics? Inhalation or injection
What are common gas anesthetics? Isoflurane and sevoflurane
What vital signs should be monitored during surgery? Indications of blood perfusion, heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, respiratory rate and character
What devise monitors the oxygen saturation of an animal's blood? Pulse oximeter
What is a method for determining the depth of anesthesia? Toe pinch
What are some behavioral signs of pain? Guarding, Vocalization, Facial expression, Tooth grinding, Altered respiration, restlessness, recumbency, difficulty w ambulation, abnormal postures, self-mutilation, abnormal temperament, reduced self-grooming, changes in eating, abnormal eliminations
Describe guarding The animal protects the painful area by moving away.
Describe vocalization The animal produces atypical vocalizations on movement, on palpation of the affected area, or even in the absence of manipulation
Describe altered respiratory rate and character May be an indication of thoracic or abdominal discomfort. Might also indicate inadequate ventilation of the lungs
Describe restlessness Animal may pace, shift its weight or repeatedly stand up and lie down
Describe recumbency The animal lies down for prolonged periods and fails to rise with stimulated. The position the animal assumes when lying down should be compared to how it normally sleeps
Describe difficulty with ambulation The animal is reluctant or has difficulty rising from recumbency to a sitting or standing position. The animal may also limp, avoid putting weight on a limb or not fully extend the limb
Describe abnormal postures The animal may press its head against an object or a wall, stand with a tucked abdomen, hang the head down, tilt the head to one side or walk stiffly
Describe self-mutilation The animal licks, bites, kicks, presses, shakes or scratches the painful area
Describe abnormal temperament The animal may behave differently, even aggressively, towards handlers
Describe reduced self-grooming The animal may have a ruffled and soiled hair coat
Describe changes in eating or drinking Consumption of food or water may be reduced or none. It is important to compare the amount consumed with what is normal for that individual, or for an animal of that species and age
Describe abnormal eliminations The animal my have an altered amount or appearance of urine or feces. The animal may also appear to strain during elimination, and the frequency of urination and defecation may be altered
What are analgesics? Pain-relieving medication
What are common analgesics? Opioids-such as buprenorphine and morphine Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)-like meloxicam and carprofen
What comprises a surgical animal's medical record? Records regarding anesthesia, analgesia, medical treatments, postoperative observations of recovery animals, and euthanasia of those used in terminal procedures
Created by: CarrieAngeles