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ENERGY and its food source The ability to do work. Comes from the Sun
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate - a compound source of energy used to breakdown and release energy, becoming adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phosphate (P)
Aerobic With oxygen, or in the presence of oxygen
Anaerobic Requiring no oxygen (short spurt, high energy activities)
Steady State After 3-4 minutes, oxygen uptake has reached an adequate level to meet oxygen demands
Excess post-oxygen consumption EPOC Oxygen debt, referring to oxygen uptake remaining elevated above resting levels for several minutes during recovery
Oxygen Deficit Period which the level of oxygen consumption is below what is necessary to supply appropriate ATP production
Anaerobic Threshold The point at which the body can no longer meet its demand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism is accelerated
Aerobic Capacity ability of the body to remove oxygen from the air and transfer through the lungs and blood to working muscles, related to cardiorespiratory endurance
Lactic Acid The by-product of the anaerobic metabolism of glucose and glycogen in muscle
Stroke Volume The volume of blood ejected by each ventricle of the heart during a single systole
Cardiac Output The volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute
Venous Return Pumping action of muscles in extremities and respiratory system along with venoconstriction to move oxygen-poor blood back to heart.
Blood Pooling Condition caused by ceasing vigorous exercise too abruptly so that the blood remains in the extremities and not delivered fast to brain and heart
Vital Capacity Greatest volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after the deepest inspiration.
Valsalva Maneuver Dangerous condition that can occur if an individual holds their breath forming an unequal pressure in the brain. Dizziness, temporary loss of consciousness may occur.
Blood pressure norms On average, adult heart at rest beats 60-80 times per minutes
Pectoralis Major Chest Muscle (Anterior)
Deltoid Shoulder Muscle (Anterior)
Bicep Inner arm muscle (Anterior)
Rectus Abdominis Stomach muscles (Anterior)
External Oblique Outer Stomach Muscles (Anterior)
Internal Oblique Inner Stomach Muscles (Anterior)
Tensor Fasciae Latae Outer Leg Muscle (Anterior)
Adductors Inner Thigh Leg Muscles (Anterior)
Tibialis Anterior Outer Front Calf Muscle (Anterior)
Quadriceps Muscle Group Leg Muscle Group (Anterior): Rectus Femoris Vastus Lateralis Vastus Medialis Vastus Intermedius
Hip Flexor and Lateral Spinal Flexor Hip Muscles (Anterior) Iliopsoas, Quadratus lumborum
Trapezius Top Should muscles (posterior)
Rhomboid Inner Shoulder Blade muscle (Posterior)
Triceps Outer back arm muscle (Posterior)
Latissimus Dorsi Outer Back Muscles (Posterior)
Erector Spinae Inner Back Muscles, along spine (Posterior)
Gluteus Medius Upper Glute Muscle (Posterior)
Gluteus Maximus Main Glute Muscle (Posterior)
Hamstrings Group Back of Upper Leg Muscles (Posterior) Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Biceps Femoris
Gastrocnemius Upper Back of Calf Muscle (Posterior)
Soleus Outer Back Calf Muscle (Posterior)
Achilles Tendon Tendon on the back of the heel reaching up toward the calf muscle
Anatomical Planes Horizontal (Transverse) Frontal Sagittal
Joint The point at which two or more bones meet and movement occurs (synovial, non-synovial)
Ligament Bands or sheet-like fibrous tissues connecting bone to bone and reinforces joints from dislocation, non-elastic, limited range of motion
Tendon Band of dense fibrous tissues forming the termination of a muscle and attaching muscle to the bone with minimum elasticity
Cartilage White, semi-opaque fibrous connective tissue, cushions and prevents wear on articular surfaces
Anterior/Posterior To the front / To the back
Medial/Lateral Toward the midline of the body / Side to side movements away from the midline of the body
Supine/Prone Lying face up / Lying face down
Superior/Inferior Above or upper half / Below or lower half
Unilateral/Bilateral Affects one side of the body / Affects both sides of the body equally
Horizontal (transverse) Plane Top to Bottom
Sagittal Plane Left to Right
Frontal Plane Front to back Anterior to Posterior
Flexion Bending of joint between 2 bones that decreases the angle
Extension Motion of increasing angle between 2 bones, straightening of a muscle previously bent in flexion
Abduction Movement away from the midline
Adduction Movement toward the midline
Rotation Movements around an axis
Circumduction Movements in which the extremity describes a 360 degree circle
Agonist (primary movers) muscle performing work
Antagonist muscle working in opposition of a primary mover (agonist)
Primary Mover Main muscle performing work
Assistors Muscles that help perform the same task
Stabilizers Help prevent undesired or unnecessary motions
Isometric Contraction No joint movement, bony lever is not moved any distance (equal length)
Concentric Contraction Muscle fiber shortens, positive work against gravity or external resistance (shortening, positive work)
Eccentric Contraction Muscle fibers lengthen, bony levers move to direction of gravity (lengthening, negative work)
Isotonic Contraction Tension remains constant as muscle shortens or lengthens (equal tension)
Isokinetic Contraction Muscle shortens at a constant rate (equal or same motion)
Fast Twitch (FG, fast glycolytic) muscle fibers Type II fibers, high-intensity contractions easily fatigued. (Anaerobic Energy)
Slow Twitch (SO, Slow oxidative) muscle fibers Type I fibers, Long term low to moderate intensity activities (Aerobic Energy)
Vitamins Non-Caloric, organic compounds needed in small quantities to assist in such functions as growth, maintenance, and repair
Minerals Inorganic compounds that assist processed such as regulating activity of enzymes and maintaining acid-based balance and are structural components of body tissue
Chronic Injury Excessive, repeated stress is placed on one area of body over a long period of time. Tissue begins to fail
Acute Injury Sudden onset due to specific trauma such as twisting an ankle (if ignored, may become chronic)
Strain Over-stretching or tearing of a muscle or tendon
Sprain Tearing or over-stretching of a ligament
RICE Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation For Musculoskeletal Injuries
SAPI Survey, Assessment, Prioritization, Implementation Steps in recognizing an emergency
Principle of Overload To achieve a desired training effect, body must be overloaded beyond its normal level or present capacities
Principle of Progression Exercise program should provide gradual increases or progressions in frequency, intensity, time, type
Principle of Overtraining Body needs time to recover and musculoskeletal system needs time to rebuild. Without sufficient rest, overtraining will occur
Reversibility Principle If workload is decreased, detraining in performance will occur
Specificity of Training Principle (SAID) Specific Adapt to Imposed Demands Body will adapt to type of physiological stresses placed on it. In order to improve in certain areas, area must be rehearsed.
Warm-Up The preparation period for a specific workout. Increases core temperature and prepares muscles.
Movement Rehearsal Warm Up Method Performing lighter or less intense versions of movements or patterns that will be used in the workout to follow
Limbering Movements Warm Up Method Smooth, moderately-paced, non-weighted, full range of motion movements that increase joint mobility and core temperature
Preparatory Stretching Warm Up Method Designed to ease the muscles through a range of motion to ensure proper movement mechanics
Continous or Steady State Cardiorespiratory Training Method Intensity gradually increases, held at steady state, then gradually decreases at the end of the workout
Interval Training Cardiorespiratory Training Method Timed bouts of high intensity work followed by lower-intensity active recovery
Intermittent Training Cardiorespiratory Training Method Variable Intensity or Spontaneous Training. Randomly intersped peak movements followed by low-intensity movements
Circuit Training Cardiorespiratory Training Method Time bouts of exercises performed in station-to-station, or sequences. For cardiorespiratory endurance or muscular strength.
Muscular Strength and Endurance Training Working individual or groups of muscle against resistance to muscle fatigue (failure)
Muscle Isolation Muscle Strength and Endurance Training Method Targets specific muscle groups by using primary movement (joint action)
Multi-Joint, Multi-Muscle Muscle Strength and Endurance Training Method Involves more than one joint, targeting several muscles
Torso Stabilization Muscle Strength and Endurance Training Method Enhance ability to maintain proper spinal alignment and posture
Functional Training Muscle Strength and Endurance Training Method Replicates movements commonly used in daily living.
Flexibility Training Focuses on joint mobility and muscle suppleness, muscle flexibility, reducing tension. (Decreases risk of injury)
Static Stretch Flexibility Training Method Places targeted muscles in position of elongation and holds in that position (1-4 reps of 15-60 seconds each)
Dynamic Stretch Flexibility Training Method Full Range of Motion stretch. Controlled, limbering move. Ballistic, forced move.
PNF Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Flexibility Training Method Involve an active contraction of muscle just before the stretch. (contract/release)
Final Class Segment Closure of workout. Stretching, relaxation, stress-reducing techniques. Promotes mind-body awareness. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure decreases
Physical Focus Relaxation Method Become aware of bodily systems and sensations in attempt to increase relaxation
Mental Abstract Focus Relaxation Method Imagine in order to create a greater sense of relaxation
Combination Focus Relaxation Method Combination of physical and mental focuses to obtain optimum relaxation
Resting Heart Rate (RHR) Number of beats per minute while at rest
MHR or HRmax Maximal Heart Rate
THRR Target Heart Rate Range
HRR Heart Rate Range
Recovery Heart Rate Speed at which heart rate returns to pre-exercise level
RPE Rating of Perceived Exertion subjectively measures an individual's effort during exercise
Talk Test Evaluates an individual during cardiorespiratory exercise ability to engage in conversation during exercise represents work at or near a steady rate
LIA Low-Impact Aerobics Keeping at least one foot on or as close to floor as possible
MIA Moderate-Impact Aerobics Both feet on the floor, but both feet roll through a toe-ball-heel action every time
HIA High-Impact Aerobics Both feet leave the floor alternatively or at the same time
NIA Non-Impact Aerobics Upper body movements along with active thigh movements as feet remain on the floor. (elevating heart rate)
Constant Resistance Directed against the target muscle and does not vary through range of motion (free weights, body weight)
Variable Resistance Designed to achieve maximum muscular involvement through the used of specialized machines or tubing
EIA Exercise Induced Asthma (bronchospasm) moderate obstruction of the airway that is not life-threatening
Par-Q Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire Obtains sufficient information to notify if consumer needs to seek medical clearance prior to engaging in group exercise
Stretch Reflex Muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle maintains a constant length.
Created by: NVR15