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LAT Certification

Chapter 7

What is Gross Anatomy? The structures or parts of an animal that are visible to the unaided eye
What is Histology? A branch of anatomy relating to the microscopic details of tissue
What is Physiology? The study of how the parts of a living organism work
The body is arranged into how many sections? What are they? 3 sections; the head, the trunk and the extremities
Caudal Closer to the tail
Cranial Closer to the head
Distal Toward the periphery. When referring to limbs, in the direction away from the trunk
Dorsal Closer to the animal's back
Lateral Away from the medial plane
Palmar The side of the forefoot that contacts the ground when standing (also called volar)
Plantar The side of the hind foot that contacts the ground when standing ( also called volar)
Rostral Closer to the tip of the nose. (Used in reference to the head)
Ventral Closer to the belly
What are the three main components of an animal cell? Cell membrane, cytoplasm, cell nucleus
What is the cell membrane and what is its function? The cell membrane is the outer boundary of the cell; it provides stability and fluidity to the cell. It is a semi-permeable membrane that selectively allows entry and exit
What is the cytoplasm and what is its function? The cytoplasm is the fluid environment that includes all of the cellular matter enclosed by the cell membrane except for the nucleus. Contains organelles, salts, dissolved gases and nutrients
What is the cell nucleus and what is its function? A generally rounded structure surrounded by a nuclear membrane that separates it from the cytoplasm. Contains the genetic material that directs the function of the cell
What are tissues? A collection of similar cells that group together to perform a specialized function
What are the four general categories of tissues for vertebrate animals? Epithelial and endothelial, connective, muscle and nerve
Where is epithelial tissue located within the body? It covers all external body surfaces and lines organs that are continuous with these outer surfaces, such as the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems
What is the function of epithelial tissue? A protective barrier against mechanical injury, fluid loss, and penetration by infectious agents and noxious chemicals
Where is endothelial tissue found within the body? In the lining of internal spaces of the body, such as the heart, blood vessels and the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
What is the function of endothelial tissue? A protective barrier against fluid loss and the passage of large molecules and infectious microorganisms.
What is the function of connective tissue? To bind together or support cells, other tissues, and organs throughout the body.
What are types of connective tissue? Bones, tendons and subcutaneous tissue
What is the most common connective tissue cell? What is its function? Fibroblast. It secretes structural fibers such as collagen and ground substance
What are the three classifications of connective tissue? Loose, fibrous or special
What are the two types of muscle cells? Smooth and Striated
What is an organ? A structure that contains at least two different types of tissue functioning together for a common purpose.
What is an organ system? Two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function
The vertebrate body contains how many major organ systems? 11
What are the four basic structures in vertebrate skin? Epidermis, dermis, glands, hypodermis
What is the epidermis? What are some characteristics? Outer layer of the skin. Epidermal cells lose their nuclei as they migrate to the surface, contain a large amount of water-insoluble protein that makes skin water resistant and protects tissue below from dehydration
What is the dermis? What are some characteristics? Layer lies directly under epidermis. Formed largely of elastic connective tissue. Contains nerves, blood vessels, hair follicles, smooth muscle fibers, pigment cells and some glands
What are some characteristics of integumentary glands? Open to the surface of the skin. Secrete fluids that protect, lubricate and help regulate temperature. Sweat glands secrete salts and water
What is the hypodermis? What are some characteristics? An amorphous layer of connective tissue and fat that loosely binds the skin to the underlying tissues. A location where body fat can be stored
What is an endoskeleton? An internal skeleton made of bone and cartilage covered by soft tissue. Bone and cartilage are living tissue capable of growth
What is an exoskeleton? An external skeleton, which is non-living tissue
What is the function of a skeleton? To determine an animal's shape, provides it with support and protection and helps it to move.
How are bones attached to each other? Ligaments
How are muscles attached to bone? Tendons
What are the two types of connective tissue in the skeleton? Bone and cartilage
What are the five types of bones? Long, Short, Flat, Irregular, Sesamoid
What are the parts of the long bones? Diaphysis, Epiphysis, Medullary cavity, Periosteum
What is the diaphysis? The main shaft of the bone
What is the epiphysis? The specialized area at the end of the long bones where growth occurs in young animals. Also the part of the bone articulated with other bones in a joint
What is the medullary cavity? The space inside long bones that contains red or yellow marrow. The red marrow is where blood cells are produced
What is the periosteum? A white fibrous membrane that covers a bone, except at the joint surface. Contains bone-forming cells and is the tissue to which tendons and ligaments attach.
What is the axial skeleton made of? Central trunk of the body-consists of the skull, vertebrae, tail, ribs and sternum
What is the appendicular skeleton made of? Limbs and associated structures
Name the five regions of the vertebral column (from head to tail) Cervical (C), Thoracic (T), Lumbar (L), Sacral (S), Coccygeal (Cy)
What are the first two cervical vertebrae called? What are their functions? Atlas and axis; they provide range of motion between the skull and the body
What is the thoracic region of the axial skeleton made up of? Sternum, ribs and thoracic vertebrae
What are the three fused bones of the pelvis? Ilium, Ischium and Pubis
What does rotation mean? A pivoting movement, such as turning the head side to side
What does flexion mean? Bending or folding, such as the action of the elbow (decreases the angle)
What does extension mean? Opening the joint (increases the angle)
What does abduction mean? Moving a bone away from the midline of the body
What does adduction mean? Moving toward the midline of the body
What causes voluntary muscle contractions? Conscious or external stimuli
What causes involuntary muscle contractions? Unconscious or internal stimuli
What is muscle tone or tonus? The muscle remaining in a state of slight contraction
What is special about cardiac muscle? Specialized type of striated muscle; only type of muscle able to contract rhythmically and continually
What is blood composed of? Plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes
What are the different kinds of leukocytes? Granulocytes, monocytes, Lymphocytes
What molecules do erythrocytes contain, and what is their function? Contains hemoglobin molecules; combine with O2 and CO2 to transport these respiratory gases throughout the body
What are leukocytes? Cells that help the body deal with infections and injury and provide other protective and repair responses.
What are neutrophils? A type of granulocyte; specialized cells involved in the inflammatory response and host defense
What are monocytes? Cells that are triggered by a range of stimuli, including damaged cells, pathogens and cytokines. Circulate in the bloodstream for about 1-3 days before moving into body tissues. When enter damaged tissue, become macrophages
What are the 3 major types of lymphocytes? T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells
What is the function of thrombocytes? Prevent excessive bleeding at sites of injury. Help reduce blood loss by sticking to the vessel walls near an injured site, where they release chemicals that aid in the formation of clots
What are the separate tissue layers that comprise the walls of the heart? Myocardium-heart muscle, epicardium-covers the outer surface of the myocardium, endocardium-delicate layer of cells which lines the inside of the heart chambers
What are the three types of blood vessels and their functions? Arteries-carry blood away from the heart Veins-return blood to the heart Capillaries-connect arteries and veins
Where is the majority of the body's total blood volume held? In the venous system
How does blood flow? From an area where the pressure is greater to an area where it is lower
The contraction phase of the left ventricle is called? Systole
The relaxation phase of the left ventricle is called Diastole
Describe systemic circulation Arteries distribute oxygen-rich blood to the body and veins return oxygen-depleted blood to the heart
Describe pulmonary circulation Oxygen depleted blood is carried by the pulmonary arteries to the lungs and pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood back to the heart
How is lymph formed? When a portion of the blood plasma leaks out through the capillary walls and into the surrounding tissue spaces
What are lymph nodes? Masses of various types of lymphocytes, organized by connective tissue and surrounded by a capsule
Define respiration Process that aids the exchange of gases between an organism and its environment
What is the primary branch of the trachea called? Bronchus
What are alveoli? Microscopic air sacs composed of a single layer of epithelial cells enveloped in a network of finely divided blood capillaries.
What is the pleural sac? A clear membrane that encases the lung; lines the entire ribcage and contains a small amount of fluid for lubrication
Explain how inspiration (breathing in) is accomplished By increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity via contraction of the diaphragm and ribcage muscles. The change in thoracic volume results in a decrease of internal pressure, so air flows into the lungs during inhalation
Explain how expiration (breathing out) is accomplished By relaxation of the diaphragm and ribcage muscles, which allows the elastic recoil of the lungs to assist in expelling air.
Where does fermentation occur in ruminants? In the rumen
Where does fermentation occur in rabbits, horses and rodents? In the cecum
What is another name for the gastrointestinal tract? Alimentary canal
What are the four components of a ruminants stomach? The rumen, the reticulum, the omasum and the abomasum
What is the rumen's function? A large fermentation vat; it contracts to mix the contents and release fermentation gases
What is the reticulum's function? Involved in fermentation and regurgitation (for cud chewing)
What is the omasum's function? Routes fermented food materials from the rumen to the abomasum
What is the abomasum's function? A true stomach that secretes digestive enzymes.
What are the regions of the small intestine? Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What organs comprises the mammalian urinary system? 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, one urinary bladder and one urethra
What is the function of the reproductive organs? Secretion of sex hormones and production of gametes
What are the two subsystems in the nervous system? The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
What comprises the central nervous system? The spinal cord and the brain
What comprises the peripheral nervous system? All remaining nervous tissue in the body other than the brain and spinal cord
What are the two parts to the autonomic nervous system? Sympathetic and parasympathetic
What are the parts of a neuron? Cell body-containing nucleus and organelles, long extension of the cell called an axon, and a number of short, multi-branched extensions called dendrites
What is myelin and what is its function? A sheath made of a fatty substance that surrounds an axon; acts as an insulator
What is the endocrine system? Made up of a number of paired and unpaired ductless glands that produce one or more specific types of hormones; primarily regulates metabolic and other vital bodily functions
What are the major endocrine structures? Pituitary gland, adrenal gland, thyroid and parathyroid glands, pancreas, gonads
What are the regions of the pituitary gland, and what are the functions? Anterior lobe-produces at least 6 different hormones which help regulate growth, metabolism and the functions of the other endocrine glands Posterior lobe-produces additional hormones that aid in water resorption and smooth muscle contraction
What is an adrenal gland made up of? Cortex-outer layer Medulla-inner portion
What does the adrenal cortex do? Secretes steroid hormones-corticosteroids; help regulate protein and carbohydrate metabolism, regulate the balance of electrolytes and aid in stress adaptation
What does the adrenal medulla do? Produces the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine to stimulation by the autonomic nervous system-flight or fight hormones
What hormones are produced by the thyroid? What are their functions? Thyroxine-affects metabolic rate Calcitonin-important in helping the body use calcium
What hormone is produced by the parathyroid? What is its function? Parathormone-works with calcitonin to control blood calcium concentration
Where in the pancreas are insulin and glucagon produced? Clusters of cells called the islets of Langerhans
Created by: CarrieAngeles



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