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LAT Certification

Chapter 10

What are the four types of syringe tips? Slip tips, Eccentric slip tips, Luer lock tips, Catheter tips
What is a potential problem with slip tip syringes? This tip does not lock onto the needle hub which could cause the syringe to detach from the needle during injection
What is a benefit of the eccentric slip tip syringe? The tip is offset from the center of the syringe allowing the syringe and needle direct contact with the skin. This reduces the angle of needle penetration.
What is an advantage of the Luer lock tip? The syringe twists onto the needle hub for a tight fit.
What is the design of the catheter tip syringe? Elongated and tapered, designed to fit into a tube
How are needle sizes designated? Length and diameter (gauge)
What are two examples of a safety injector system? Needle-free injector and Safety needle.
How should used syringes and needles be discarded? As biohazardous waste in a sharps container
When should you seal and dispose a sharps container? When it is 2/3 full
Which injection route is used for fast absorption and distribution of a compound in the body? IV
Why should you keep pressure on an IV injection site while withdrawing the needle? To allow the puncture site to for a clot, preventing a hematoma from forming and keeping the injection material from leaking out of the vein.
What is a common IV injection site for mice and rats? Lateral tail vein
Why are IP injections commonly administered in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen? To avoid puncturing structures such as the bladder and the cecum.
In what position is the animal placed for an IP injection? Head tilted downwards to allow the abdominal structures to fall out of the way
Where are IM injections generally given? In a large muscle mass, typically in the hind limb either in the quadriceps or the biceps muscle group
what is the maximum volume for an IM injection in the mouse? 0.05mL
Where are SC injections placed? Between the skin and the underlying muscle
What is the bulge observed following a SC injection called? A bleb
What are ID injections routinely used for? TB testing of nonhuman primates. The injection is performed in the skin of the eyelid to allow for easy reading of test results
What is gastric gavage? Administration of a solution directly into the stomach by intubation of the esophagus
How do you check for the correct needle length for a gastric gavage? Restrain the animal in a vertical position with one hand. With the other hand, check the needle length by measuring the needle from the corner of the mouth to the sternum
What two things are required for gastric gavage in large animals? A bite bar and a flexible stomach tube
Which two animals have unique anatomical features for the pharynx that may affect intubation? Guinea pig and chinchilla
The total blood volume in an animal's body equals approximately how much of its total body weight? 6%
What is a common guideline for how much blood can be collected without causing side effects? A volume equal to 1% of the animal's total body weight taken every 2 weeks
How does IV blood collection differ from IV injection? Proximal pressure on the vein is maintained throughout blood collection, keeping the vein distended.
How can a mouse be restrained for a saphenous bleed? In a conical tube, with air holes drilled at the bottom.
What is a preferred alternative to retroorbital bleeding in mice and rats? Facial or Maxillary Vein blood collection
Retroorbital blood collection is limited to which species? Why? Mice, hamsters, gerbils, guinea pigs, rats, ferrets and pigs. These species have a large venous sinus or plexus.
When would a cardiac puncture be used? As a terminal procedure, to retrieve a large volume of blood from a small animal.
What artery is typically used for blood collection in rabbits? Central ear (auricular) artery
What is a catheter? A hollow tube through which blood or other body fluids may be withdrawn or substances administered.
What does a butterfly catheter consist of? Needle, plastic tabs (the butterfly), tubing and a syringe adapter
Why would a "cut-down" procedure be performed? To directly visualize a blood vessel in order to insert a catheter.
How are catheters maintained between uses? The catheter is locked with heparin solution and capped.
How is catheter patency maintained in IV drips? By the constant flow of fluids such as saline or Ringer's solution
How do arterial catheterizations differ from venous catheterizations? It is most often used as a means of directly measuring blood pressure, arteries are more difficult to puncture than veins, and it is a more painful procedure so anesthesia may be required.
Why would a tether system be used? Allow for repeated vascular access without the need to restrain or anesthetize the animal on each occasion.
Osmotic pumps may provide dose administration for what duration? 1 day to 6 weeks
What is a complication of urinary catheterization? The possibility of introducing bacteria into the bladder due to the bacterial flora of the urethra
What is the name of a common type of catheter used in large animals? Foley catheter
What is the procedure called for obtaining a sterile sample of urine? Cystocentesis
What is a laryngoscope and why is it used? A laryngoscope consists of a handle, a long blade and a light at the blade tip. It presses the tongue down and exposes and illuminates the larynx to enable passage of an endotracheal tube
What tool is often used to place an endotracheal tube in small animals? Otoscope
How are types of anticoagulant signified in a blood tube? By the color of the rubber stopper or cap on the tube
What type of sample is collected in red tubes, and what anticoagulant is present? Serum sample, no anticoagulent
What type of sample is collected in purple tubes, and what anticoagulant is present? Plasma sample, EDTA
What type of sample is collected in green tubes, and what anticoagulant is present> Plasma sample, Heparin
What is centrifugation of urine used for? To detect the presence of cells and debris that could indicate a problem
Created by: CarrieAngeles