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ANTH 205 Final

Culture The way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time
Culture That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society
Anthropology The systematic study of humankind
History The study of the past, particularly how it relates to humans - relies on written records
The Four Subfields of Anthropology Physical/Biological Anthro, Cultural Anthro, Archaeology, Linguistics
Biological Anthropology Scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct ancestors
Archeology Examines the material traces of past societies and informs us about the culture of those past societies
Linguistics The scientific study of language - specifically language form, language meaning, and language context
Grammar System of rules which govern the form of the utterances in a given language. It encompasses both sound and meaning
Syntax The formation and composition of phrases and sentences from words
Historical Linguistics Study of the history of specific languages as well as general characteristics of language
Cultural Anthropology The study of cultural variation among modern humans
Cultural Relativism The view that cultural traditions must be understood within the context of a particular society's responses to problems and opportunities
Ethnocentrism Judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture
Ethical Relativism Accepting the value system of a society and not judging it within a moral framework
Subsistence Patterns Sources and methods a society uses to obtain its food and other neccessities
Pastoralism Herding large domesticated animals. The best use of grassland in an unpredictable climate - nomadic.
Agriculture Large-scale, intensive farming. Primary subsistence pattern of large-scale populous societies
Horticulture Small scale, low intensity farming, part time tending and planting of domesticated (sometimes not domesticated) plants and animals
Foraging Hunting and gathering wild plants and animals. No permanent year-round settlements
Transhumance The seasonal movement of people with their livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures
Carrying Capacity The maximum population size of a species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water, and other necessities available in the environment
Natural Increase The difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a population
Kinship The web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of most humans in most societies
Family A group of people affiliated by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence/shared consumption (by nurture kinship). In most societies it is the principal institution for the socialization of children
Descriptive Terminology a term refers to only one specific type of relationship. For example the word brother in English-speaking societies indicates a son of one's same parents
Classificatory Terminology Groups many different types of relationships under one term. For example a person's male first cousin (whether mother's brother's son or father's sister's son) may also be referred to as a brother
Matrilineal Descent When individuals belong to their mother's descent group only
Bilateral Descent Descent reckoned through both father and mother, without unilineal descent groups. Affiliates an individual more or less equally with relatives on his/her father's and mother's sides
Created by: mstout
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