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PHARM: Review L1

QuestionAnswer
Agonist A drug that brings a specific action by binding with the appropriate receptor
Contraindication Reasons for not using a drug for a certain patient
Efficacy The extent to which a drug causes the intended effects in a patient
Over-the-counter drug Drug you purchase without a veterinary approved prescription
Prescription drug Can only be prescribed by vet with a client-patient-relationship
Therapeutic Indexx The relationship between a drugs ability to achieve the desired effect and its tendency to provide toxic effects
Withdrawal Time The length of time it takes for a drug to be eliminated from animal tissue or products after its no longer used
Veterinarian-client-patient relationship The set of circumstances that must exist between the vet-client-patient before dispensing of prescription drugs is appropriate
What are the four sources of drugs used in veterinary medicine? Animal products, plant materials, minerals, and synthetic products
What are four components of a drug regimen? Dose, route, frequency, and duration
What conditions must be met for a client-patient relationship to exist? 1. Vet must assume responsibility for making clinical judgements on animals health. 2. Vet must have recently seen the animal and familiar with its care. 3. Vet must be available for follow up care
What is the techs responsibilities in the administration of drug orders? 1. Make sure order is correct, ask for clarification of any confusion, do not guess. 2. Tech should read label 3 times to ensure its correct. 3. be sure to give correct dose by correct route. 4. Be aware of expected effects and potential adverse side effe
Sequence of events that a drug undergoes from administration to excretion? 1. Drug 1st absorbed in bloodstream. 2. In the blood drug may bind with plasma protein or in free state. 3. Circulating blood distributes the drug to a capillary level, where the drug leaves circulation and enters interstitial fluid. 4. The interstitial f
What are the 11 possible routes for administering drugs? 1. Oral/PO, simple route, don't give to vomiting cases. 2. SQ, simple, slower, no hypertonic solutions. 3. IM, faster to absorb, watch out for blood vessels/nerve. 4. IV, works immediate, toxic or allergic side effects. 5. Intraperitoneal/IP, administer f
Factors that influence drug absorption? 1. Method of absorption. 2. pH of the drug and its ionization status. 3. Absorption surface area. 4. Blood supply area. 5. Solubility of the drug. Dosage form. 7. status of GI tract. 8. Interactions with other drugs
Most Biotransformation of drugs occurs in the? Liver
Most drug excretion occurs via the? Kidneys
The drug name that is chosen by the manufacturer and that is the exclusive property of that company is called? Proprietary/trade
What are the 6 items that must be included on a drug label? 1. Drug names (generic + trade) 2. concentration 3. quantity 4. names/address of manufacturer 5. control or lot number 6. expiration date.
What are three government agencies that regulate the development, approval, and use of animal health products? FDA, EPA, USDA
Why do many veterinary clinics dispense rather than prescribe most of the drugs that they use? More profit earned from selling them in hospital.
Describe the marketing of the animal health products? Veterinary pharmaceuticals may be purchased directly from the manufacture from distributors of from generic mail order companies.
All FDA-approved veterinary drugs are listed in the publication entitled? The Green Book
What is the purpose of FARAD? Provides resources concerning the avoidance of drug residues in animals
Extralabel veterinary drug use was made legal (under prescribed circumstances) by what act of Congress? AMDUCA (Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act)
Compounding Diluting or combining of existing drugs
What are the potential dangers of residues in animal products? May cause allergic reactions or neoplasia in people and may cause the development of antibiotic resistant strains of bacterua
What are the 3 classes of drug interaction? 1. Pharmacodynamic 2. Pharmacokinetic 3. Pharmaceutic
Pharmacodynamics The study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and the mechanisms of their actions, including the correlation of their actions and effects with their chemical structure.
Pharmacokinetic Relating to the disposition of drugs in the body (that is, their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination).
Pharmaceutic Relating to pharmacy or to pharmaceutics
Drug interaction Alteration of the effects of a drug by reaction with another drug or drugs, with foods or beverages, or with a preexisting medical condition
Drug interaction can be anticipated when two drugs are given that are both metabolized by the? Liver
Ethical product An “ethical” product is one sold only through veterinarians as a policy of the manufacturer rather than by FDA requirement
Once a drug has been biotransformed, it is called a ? Metabolite
An__________is a reason to use a drug. Indication
The diagnostic method of choosing a drug is based on all of the following except a. practical experience (correct answer) b. assessment of the patient c. obtaining a history d. performing laboratory tests
Extralabel use means? Using a drug in a way not specified by the label.
All the following are true about a veterinarian– client–patient relationship except: a. The veterinarian has seen and treated all the client’s pets except a dog for which the owner would like to buy heartworm preventative. (correct answer) b. The veterinarian has assumed responsibility for making clinical judgments about the health of th
_________ is the complex sequence of events that occurs after a drug is administered to a patient Pharmacokinetics
Parenteral drugs are administered? By injection
__________ is the body’s ability to change a drug chemically from the form in which it was administered into a form that can be eliminated from the body. Metabolism (biotransformation)
The _____ of a drug represents the degree to which a drug produces its desired response in a patient. Efficacy
Adverse drug reactions are always life threatening? T or F False
All the following agencies regulate animal health products except _____________. a. FDA b. EPA c. AVMA (correct) d. USDA
List the six practices recommended by the AVMA for the safe disposal of unwanted drugs 1. Incinerate when possible 2. Send unwanted drugs to the landfill when incineration is not possible 3. Never flush unwanted drugs down the toilet or drain 4. Maintain close inventory control. 5. Follow state and federal guidelines. 6. Educate clients on
Antagonist A substance that tends to nullify the action of another, as a drug that binds to a cell receptor without eliciting a biological response, blocking binding of substances that could elicit such responses
Half-life Time required for the amount of drug present in the body to be reduced by one half
Partition Coefficient The ratio of the solubility of substances (gas, anesthetics) between two states in which they may be found (blood and gas, gas and rubber goods)
Adverse drug event An adverse drug event is harm to a patient caused by administration of a drug for therapeutic or diagnostic reasons. It may be due to a medication error such as using the wrong drug, the wrong dose, or the wrong interval or administering the drug to the w
Adverse drug reaction An adverse reaction is due to the inherent properties of the drug itself. Adverse reactions may range from mild dermatitis to anaphylactic shock and death. Poor quality or purity of the drug may cause an adverse reaction. Some patients may react to carrie
Drug Interactions An altered pharmacologic response to a drug that is caused by the presence of a second drug is called a drug interaction. The normal response to the drug may be increased or decreased as a consequence of this interaction. The interaction may be beneficial
Created by: trisha882