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veterinary anatomy

anatomy revision

is NOT a function of the skeletal system It provides a series of solid cavities which house the endocrine organs.
are long bones humerus, radius and femur
are flat bones scapular, ribs and the bones of the cranium
In endochondral ossification the primary centre of ossification usually occurs: . in the diaphysis
The joint between the right and left mandibles is a: symphysis
The process of using small chemical units to provide energy is known as: Metabolism
Inflammation of the gum is known as: Gingivitis
The muscle found in the tongue is: Striated
The carnassial tooth of the dog in the lower dental arch is: - The 1st molar
The function of the incisor teeth of the cat is: - To nibble small pieces off the bone ***
Endocrine glands secrete chemical messengers known as: . hormones
structures are classed as endocrine glands? .ovary pancreas . parathyroid
hormones is not secreted by an endocrine gland? secretin
The anterior pituitary gland secretes: prolactin, FSH ACTH
The posterior pituitary gland is also known as the: neurohypophysis
The Latin name of the modern horse is Equus caballus
bones are included within the appendicular skeleton? cannon, pastern, splint
The vertebral formula of the horse is: C7 T18 L6 S5 Cd 15 – 20
The distinguishing feature of equine lumbar vertebrae is that they have: . large transverse processes
How many true ribs form the rib cage? 8
bones are not evident in the skeleton of the horse? . clavicle
is not a function of the integument? absorption
Which vitamin is formed within the skin? Vitamin D
Which glands are not found within the integument? endocrine glands
are not formed from epidermal cells sweat glands
The ceruminous glands are found within which part of the body? within the external ear canal
The latin name of the rabbit is: Oryctolagus cuniculus
Which two animals cannot manufacture their own Vitamin C so must be given it in their diet? guinea pig and man
The main characteristic of the order Rodentia is that they have: continuously growing incisor teeth
The gestation period of the rabbit is: 28 – 32 days
Which of the following species is classified as a Hystricomorph ? guinea pig
is not part of the female reproductive tract? urethra
The ovary is an endocrine organ responsible for the production of which hormones? oestrogen and progesterone
In which structure would you find the ovarian bursa? mesovarium
Arterial blood is supplied to the cervix by means of the: uterine artery
The passage of the ovum and later the embryo, from its release from the follicle in the ovary is: uterine tube, uterine horn, uterus
The position of the kidneys in the body is: retroperitoneal just ventral to the lumbar hypaxial muscles
In the kidney the loops of Henle lie in the: medulla
Fluid enters the glomerular capsule by: filtration
What percentage of cardiac output goes through the kidney? 20%
Glomerular filtrate flows through the kidney tubules in which order? proximal convoluted tubule, descending loop of Henle, ascending loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct
Which part of the renal nephron is lined with a brush border? proximal convoluted tubule
is NOT a function of blood? Carries enzymes from the exocrine glands of the intestine
The granular leucocyte whose function is phagocytosis is: neutrophils
The normal lifespan of an erythrocyte is: 120 days
Eosinophils can be identified by: red staining granules
Serum contains no: fibrinogen
Nerve impulses are transferred from one neuron to another by Synapses
The most common chemical transmitter carrying an impulse across a synapse is: acetyl choline
Mature bone cell Osteocyte
Responsible for creating new bone Osteoblast
Responsible for removing old/dead bone cell Osteoclast
Has tightly packed Haversian systems Strong and dense Found in cortex (outer edge) Compact / Cortical Bone
Lighter than compact bone Made up of bars called trabeculae Found at end of long bones and core of others Cancellous / Spongy Bone
Diaphysis Main shaft of bone
Epiphysis Ends of bone
Metaphysis Where diaphysis and epiphysis meet. Growth plate in young animals
Articular Cartilage Hyline cartilage that covers ends of bones
Periosteum Membranous structure that surrounds outer surface of the bone
Nutrient Foramen Small hole where blood vessels enter the bone
Cortex Outer region of compact bone
Medulla Central cavity of bone, filled with bone marrow
Skeletal muscle Under voluntary control responsible for movement of bones of the skeleton has a striped appearance under the microscope
Smooth muscle Under involuntary control and is found throughout the body, lining the intestines, bladder, blood vessels, uterus ect. Spindle shaped cells, smooth appearance under microscope.
Cardiac muscle Found only in the heart and is under involuntary control. Cells are short, cylindrical and muscle fibres are branched.
Nervous muscle Made up of neurones - recieves and interprets them and generates activity.
Millimetre mm thousandth of a metre
Micrometre μm 1×10−6 of a metre
Nanometre nm 10-9 meter, or one billionth of a meter
Nucleolus Forms part of the nucleus and contains the RNA. Also responsible for the manufacture of Ribosomes
Mitochondria Produces energy for the cell by aerobic respiration
Centrosomes Involved in replication and comprise of two centrioles
Golgi Apparatus Consists of flattened membrane sacs. Involved in the production of Lysosomes secretory granules and plasma membrane. Responsible for the transport and modification of substances such as glycoproteins
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Synthesis and transport of lipids. No ribosomes
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Responsible for protein synthesis and transportation of proteins. Ribosomes attached
Lysosome Collection of digestive enzymes in membrane sacs. Forms part of the defence mechanism of the cell
Vacuole They engulf substances in order to absorb them into the cell. This is known as pinocytosis They may also absorb fluids or engulf bacteria
Ribosome Responsible for protein synthesis and as mentioned are often attached to RER
Cystoskeleton the network of protein filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm that controls cell shape, maintains intracellular organization, and is involved in cell movement.
Centrioles They play a key role in cell division They are situated close to the nucleus and form a network on which the chromosomes are separated.
Simple Squamous epithelium Found lining alveoli of the lungs, lining blood vessels, glomelular capsules
Simple Cuboidal Found lining the renal nephron
Simple Columnar Epithelium Found lining the intestines, allowing the absorption of soluble foods
Ciliated Columnar Epithelium Lines the upper respiratory tract. The goblet cells produce mucus Also found (without the goblet cells ) in Oviducts
Stratified Squamous Epithelium Found in the Epidermis of the skin. The upper layers contain Keratin
Tranitional Epithelium Is a stratified(compound) epithelium but the cells do not become flattened at the surface. Transitional epithelium can be stretched and return to its original shape. It is found lining the bladder.
These Glands have ducts which secrete directly to the site where they will be used Exocrine
Widely distributed connective tissue which is found all over the body e.g. beneath the skin, around blood vessels or nerves Areolar/ loose connective tissue
Jelly like tissue which forms the bone marrow within the long bones and is responsible for red blood l formation Haemopoietic
Adipose Tissue can be found in closely packed fat filled cells and prevents heat loss around the body by providing Insulation
Randomly arranged collagen fibers which forms articular surfaces of joints Hyaline Cartilage
Elastic Cartilage can be found in areas where support and flexibility is needed such as External Ear
Attaches to Ligaments and bone Fibrocartilage
Created by: weekiel02



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