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VTT A&P

Digestive tract & lyphatic

QuestionAnswer
What are the functions of the digestive system? Prehension, mastication, chemical digestion, absorption, elimination
What is prehension? the grasping of food with the lips or teeth
What is mastication? mechanical grinding and breaking down of food ( chewing)
What are the layers of the digestive tract? Mucosa, submucosa, muscle layer (circular and longitudinal outside the submucosa), serosa
What is the mucosa? What is it made of? lining of the GI tract, epithelium and loose connective tissue
What is the submucosa made up of? dense connective tissue, it may contain glands
What is the serosa and what is it made up of? The outermost layer, made of thin, tough connective tissue
What is the mesentery? Clear membrane sheets that suspend the intestines from the dorsal wall of the abdomen
What are the functions of the mesentery? It prevents intestine entanglement, contains blood and lymph vessels and nerves that supply the GI tract, and helps control infection
What is volvulus? When the blood supply is cut off from the intestine due to a torsion
What is the omentum? part of the mesentery which helps prevent torsion
Where is the omentum? Attached at the greater curvature of the stomach (greater omentum) or at the lesser curvature of the stomach (lesser omentum)
What type of cells line the mouth, pharynx, esophagus and anus? Stratified squamous epithelium
What type of cells line from the junction of the esophagus & stomach through the intestines to the junction of the rectum and anus? Simple columnar epithelium
What part of the GI tract is made up of skeletal muscle? What kind of control is this under? Mouth, pharynx, and the cranial part of the esophagus, as well as the external anal sphincter
What part of the GI tract is made up of smooth muscle? wall of the majority of the esophagus, the stomach,small intestine, large intestine, internal anal sphincter
How is the smooth muscle of the gi tract arranges?? In circular and longitudinal bands
What is peristalsis? Alternating contractions of circular and longitudinal muscles which move food along the GI tract
What is included in the buccal cavity? Lips, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, the hard and soft palate, and oropharynx
What is the function of the salivary glands? produce saliva
Name the 3 pairs od salivary glands Parotid, mandibular, sublingual
Where are the parotid glands located? ventral to the ear canal
What are the functions of the oral cavity? prehend the food, initiate mastication, initiate chemical digestion, prepare food for swallowing
What enzymes can be found in the saliva? Amylase ( breaks down Amylose), Lipase (digests lipids and may be found in the saliva of young animals while they are nursing
What controls most of the glands in the digestive system? Autonomic nervous system
What effects does the parasympathetic nervous system have on the digestive system? increases salivation and GI motility
What effects does the sympathetic nervous system have on the digestive system? decreases salivation and GI motility
What is the esophagus? muscular tube that goes from the pharynx to the cardia of the stomach
What is the esophagus made of? smooth muscle
Why is gastric reflux so dangerous/ the esophagus has very poor blood supply and does not heal well
What protects the muscles of the esophagus? tough connective tissue or thick mucosa
What is megaesophagus? A dilation of the esophagus
What causes megaesophagus? a vascular ring anomaly or an unknown cause, can be secondary to systemic disease such as in the case of mysthenia gravis
What is the primary sign of megaesophagus? Regurgitation
What is the difference between vomiting and regurgitation? Vomiting is an active process which includes heaving. regurgitation is not active a.k.a scarf and barf,
What are the functions of the stomach? break up food, short term storage of food, dietary protein is broken down in the stomach
When the stomach is empty and the vagus nerve is inappropriately stimulated, what happens? the stomach begins to digest its own lining
What is gastric chyme? Food that has been liquefied by the stomach
What are th 5 different areas of the monogastric stomach? Cardia, fundus, body, pyloric antrum, pyloris
What structures contained in the fundus and body of the stomach? gastric glands
What cells do the gastric glands contain? Parietal cells, chief cells, and mucous cells
What do parietal cells produce? Hydrochloric acid
What do chief cells produce? the enzyme pepsinogen
What do the mucous cells produce? protective mucous
What is the function of the pyloric antrum grinds up swallowed food, regulates hydrochloric acid
Glands in the pyloric antrum contain what? G cells
What do G cells secrete? Gastrin (stimulates HCL production)
What is the pylorus? A muscular sphincter where the stomach meets the duodenum
What is the function of the pylorus? It regulates the movement of chyme from the stomach into the duodenum and prevents back flow of duodenal contents into the stomach
What is enterogastric reflex distension of the intestines or increased acidity in the duodenum inhibits stomach contraction
Where is secretin released? in response to what? duodenum, in response to excess stomach acid in the small intestine
Secretin can cause what? fundus to relax, can inhibit peristalsis of the stomach body and pyloric, slows gastric emptying time
Cholecystokinin is released in response to what? large amounts of fats or proteins in the duodenum whcich decreases contraction of the antrum, body, and fundus
What do prostaglandins do in the GI tract? inhibit gastrin release, stimulate the gastric glands to produce the bicarbonate ion, enhance blood flow to the stomach, stabilize lysosomes within gastric cells, regulate the activity of macrophages and mast cells
What is gastritis? inflammation and muccosal damage usually related to dietary indiscretion, internal parasites, toxicity
What is pyloric stenosis? hypertrophy of circular smooth muscle fibers of the pyloric sphincter. causing obstructive narrowing and back up of ingesta in the stomach
What are the 5 pancreatic proteases Trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase
What is emulsification? Agitation of the pyloric Antrum, of stomach breaks fat globules (triglycerides) into small droplets
What are micelles? lipid molecules that arrange themselves in a spherical form in aqueous solutions.
How does parvovirus affect the GI tract? it invades and wipes out the simple columnar tissue which exposes blood vessels causing blood diarrhea. in response the intestines become inflamed
What is intussusception? The telescoping of the proximal intestine into the distal intestine
What causes intususpeption? hyper motility, parasites, enteritis, or a sudden diameter change
What is the function of the large intestine? to recover fluid and electrolytes and store waste until it can be appropriately eliminated
Name 5 animals that are hind gut fermenters horses, rabbits, guinea pigs, rats and swine
What makes hind gut fermentation so successful? Modifications to the cecum and colon allow fermentative digestion in hindgut similar to rumen
What is the muscle layer composed of? two layers of muscle fibers, one that is circular and one that is longitudinal
What is enterogastric reflex Dissension of the intestines OR increased acidity in the duodenum which inhibits stomach contraction , delaying gastric emptying
What cells secrete pepsinogen? chief cells
What makes up pepsin? pepsinogen and Hydrochloric acid
What secrete intrinsic factor? glands in the submucosa
What is HGE? Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis - the acute onset of bloody diarrhea
What is a GI ulcer? Breakdown in mucosal barrier due to increased HCl production or pepsin production
What are the structures of the small i intestine duodenum, jejunum, ileum
The small intestine mucosa is made up of what? many folds and fingerlike villi
Each villus contains what? thousands of microvilli
What are the crypts? invaginations of mucosa around each villus
What is the function of the small intestine? absorption of electrolytes across SI wall, Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are chemically digested
Chemical digestion (SI) involves 2 things, what are they? 1. ENZYMES IN THE LUMEN 2. ENZYMES ASSOCIATED WITH THE MICROVILLI
Carbohydrate digestion in the SI includes what? Amylase converts starches into disaccharides in the lumen of duodenum , enzymes in microvilli further break disaccharides into monosaccharides which are transported across cell membrane of microvilli and absorbed into the bloodstream
Protein digestion in the small intestine begins with..... Gastric pepsin breaks apart some protein chains into polypeptides
Partially digested peptides are further digested by what in the microvilli? peptidases, aminoacides, dipeptides and some tripeptides are then absorbed across the cell membrane
What makes up bile? bile acids or bile salts, cholesterol, and bilirubin
What is the function of the cecum? site of fermentation
What is megacolon? an abnormally dilated colon or segment of colon
What is the primary cause of megacolon? congenital nerve defects such as short tailed cats, ex. Manx
What is the secondary cause of megacolon? any disease that abstracts the normal passage of feces is chronic constipation
What is the largest GLAND in the body liver
What are the functional part of the liver? hepatic lobules
What is the function of the biliary tree? carries bile from the liver to the gallbladder
What does the portal vein do? carries blood to the liver
What does the hepatic vein do? carries filtered blood to the caudal vena cava
What are the digestive functions of the liver? Produces bile, removes toxins and infectious agents that enter the body through the wall of the GI tract, stores and metabolizes nutrients absorbed from the GI tract
What causes gallbladder contraction? CCK- Cholecystokinin
What is hepatic lipidosis? fatty liver disease - a severe accumulation of fat int he liver
What are the functions of the pancreas? endocrine and eccrine gland, helps regulate glucose levels by producing insulin and glucagon. the primary organ supplying digestive enzymes,
What are the 4 secretions the pancreas is responsible for? sodium bicarbonate trips, amylase, lipase
What is pancreatic insufficiency disease? A deficiency of pancreatic enzymes (amylase & lipase)
Is PID more common in cats or dogs? Dogs
What are the signs of PID? Marked weight loss, and a fatty rancid stool
How is PID treated? replacement enzymes such as viokase powder at each meal
What are the 4 primary function of the lymphatic system? removal of excess tissue fluid, waste material transport, filtration of lymph, protein transport
What is lymph? formed interstially and from excess fluid from blood vessels
What does lymph fluid look like? transparent
What is lymph fluid made up of? blood cells (mostly lymphocytes), nutrients(proteins, fat, etc...) hormones, some T-cells( circulate from blood, to interstitial fluid to lymph and back to blood), B-cells(rarely recirculate)
What are lymph vessels? blind ended tubes running parallel to venous system, empties into cranial vena cava. vessels similar to veins but walls are thinner and have more valves,
lymph filters through what? lymph nodes
What are lymph nodes? oval shaped, capsulated structures having ducts for lymph to enter and leave , and produce lymphocytes
What are tonsils? mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes in peripheral locations not on lymph vessels, no capsule, no ducts
What is the function of the spleen? blood storage in the red pulp, removal of foreign material from circulation by the tissue macrophages in the red pulp, removal of dead, dying, or abnormal red blood cells by the tissue macrophages in red pulp, lymphocyte cloning during an immune response
What is the spleen made up of? reticular fibers ( connective tissue)
Spleen in divided into what? white pulp and red pulp
What is white pulp? localized areas of lymphoid tissue
What is red pulp? blood vessels, tissue, macrophages, and blood sinuses (storage)
Created by: Adeprey4311