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VTT Lab animal med

Rats and mice test review/HW Q's

What is the scientific name for the brown rat? Rattus Norvegicus
What is the country of origin of black rats? Southeast Asia
What is the country of origin of brown rats? China
Brown rats have a diploid chromosome # of? 42
Black rats have a diploid chromosome # of? 38
What is a fusiform mammal? An animal that is wider in the middle and tapers down to the end
What is the scientific name for the black rat? Rattus rattus
Define hypsodontic teeth with long supragingival surfaces, often grow continuously
What is a monogastric stomach? a simple single chambered stomach
What is unique about the epiphysis of male rats? They do not seal. Because of this a males rats size is limited only by his environment, they can become very large.
What is the Bruce effect? Newly pregnant females (within 72 hours) will spontaneously abort if introduced to a new male phermone
What is an audiogenic seizure? A seizure induced by sounds.
Because rats are prone to audiogenic seizure, what precautions should be taken? Noise should be kept to a minimum
What is a cardiocentesis? Blood collection by cardiac puncture can yield a large sample amount, is a terminal procedure and should be performed only after ensuring that the animal is under deep anesthesia.
What is barbering? The chewing of hair by cage mates
What is the whitten effect? Rats housed together will have synchronized estrus
What is the benefit of the whitten effect? useful for timing matings
Alopecia due to barbering is often found where? the muzzle, head, and middorsal region of the trunk
How is barbering corrected? removing the animal that has no evidence of alopecia
The production of porphyrin (red tears) during stressful times or illness is referred to as what? Chromodacryorrhea
Rats have a unique cardiovascular system which closely resembles what other animal? in what way? Fish, they have a pair of anterior vena cava
What is the gestation length of rats? 21-23 days
What is the average life span of a rat? 26-40 months
The disease is transmitted via fecal oral route and can cause liver necrosis and myocardial degeneration Tyzzers disease
What is coprophagia? eating feces
define Fecundity reproductive potential
List 3 methods of blood draw in rats or mice Lateral tail vein, retroorbital plexus or sinus , tail clips, toe nail clip
What is the rtetroorbital space in rats? Retroorbital plexus
What is the rtetroorbital space in mice? Retroorbital sinus
What is an advantage of getting blood via a tail clip? It can also be used for DNA collection
What is a disadvantage of getting blood via a tail clip? You can only use a tail clip so many times so this isn't used for repeated draws and you don't typically do this with pet rats
What is an advantage of drawing blood via the retroorbital plexus/sinus? It's relatively painless and atraumatic
What is a disadvantage of drawing blood via the retroorbital plexus/sinus? It can't be performed in front of clients
What is an advantage of drawing blood via the lateral tail vein? Anesthesia not required, can be repeatedly drawn from over the life of the animal, and it can be performed in front of clients.
What is a disadvantage of drawing blood via the lateral tail vein? It is often difficult to restrain unanestetized mice and rats
Describe the hand positions with reference to limbs, body, and tail) during restraint of the rat/mouse for an IP injection. scruff between the manibles or hold behind the shoulders (which causes their feet to cross and lock their head in place), Tuck tail between fingers that are holding the body, and tilt the head down
Why do you tip the head downward when restraining for an IP injection? causes the viscera to fall forward which means you are less likely to lacerate something
What should you avoid when doing an IP injection? The midline
Why must you never grasp a rat or mouse by the middle of the tail when restraining? The skin on the tail can slough off, resulting in a severe degloving injury with exposed vertebrae
How do you determine anesthetic depth with rats and mice? Movement of whiskers/ears in response to a puff of ear indicates minimal sedation, failure to withdraw a foot or tail in response to a pinch indicates a surgical plane of anesthesia, and RR you can count indicates dangerously CNS depression
What characteristics of the rat makes it ideal for toxicology studies? Their inability to vomit
What is the retroorbital space in mice called? sinus
What is the retroorbital space in rats called? plexus
What is the difference between a sinus and a plexus? Sinus (space filled), plexus (vessels)
What is the estrous cycle for rats and mice? 4-5 days
What is the estrus cycle for rats and mice? 9-20 hours
What type of cycle do rats and mice have? Continually polyestus
When do rats ears open? 3-5 days
When do mice ears open? 3 days
When do rats eyes open? 7-14 days
When do mice eyes open? 12-14 days
How do you tell gender apart in rats and mice? ano-genital distance (~5 mm in females and about twice that in males) Also male rats don't have nipples (not a good way to tell in mice because some males do) Male rats also have larger genital papilla
Do rats have a gall bladder? No
Is yellow blood serum normal for rats & mice? yes, because they don't have a gall bladder
What are four common inbreed strains and outbreed stocks? Brown (BN), Albany(ALB), Buffalo(BUF), Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat(SHR), Sprague-Dawley (SD), Long-Evens (LE), and Wistar (WI)
What type of studies are Brown rats used for? Myeloid leukemia studies
What type of studies are Albany rats used for? Mammary tumor studies
What type of studies are Buffalo rats used for? autoimmune disease studies
What type of studies are Spontaneously hypertensive rats used for? High blood pressure studies
What is a stock? type of rat that has been randomly bred (not inbred)
What is a strain? Inbred rat of 20 generations
What is the advantage of a stock? Have similar characteristics, but not genetically identical
What is the advantage of a strain? Should all respond the same way to medical tx or other experimental manipulation
What is one issue that may arise with strains? they have a propensity for missing 1 eye - usually the left
How do we deal with fighting? Separate them fewer rats/larger cages, environmental enrichment
What is the gland that produces Porphyrin? Harderian
What is the production of Porphyrin called? Chromodacryarrhea
What is the 1-2-6 rule for rats? It's a blood collection rule, 1% of body weight for survival, 3% of body weight at exsanguination, and 6% of body weight is the total volume
What are the signs of a sick rat? Low activity level, coat is scruffy, dehydration/weight loss, sticky feces, Porphyrin staining, pale eyes, light sensitivity, alopecia, labored breathing, distended abdomen
What does transgenic mean? Animals are derived by removing specific DNA sequences from one strain of species and inserting them into an ovum after fertilization
What is ringtail? Tail necrosis caused by the rats being in too low of humidity
What causes Tyzzer's disease It's an acute epizootic bacterial disease caused by Clostridium piliforme
Created by: Adeprey4311



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